授课教案
部分成案展示
教学大纲
习    题
教学课件
推荐教材
试卷与参考答案
参考文献
 
 
课程负责人
 
王 衡
西南政法大学
国际法学院教授
西南政法大学研究生导师,法学博士、国际投资与金融法律研究中心副主任。兼任(以时间为序)(世界)国际经济法协会常务理事、亚洲国际经济法网络常务理事、中国国际经济法学会理事、中国法学会国际经济法学研究会理事、西班牙马德里仲裁院仲裁员、国际可持续发展研究院董事等职。(更多
 
 
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运输保险法成案教学大纲
 

  Course Brief
    
  一、课程目标及性质(Course Objective and Nature)
  
  国际贸易法成案分析(国际货物运输与保险法成案节选)旨在培养学生掌握将货物运输与保险法应用于实践的能力,培养国际视野与竞争力。
  Cases study on international trade law (section: transport and insurance law) is aimed to develop the capacity of students to apply the transport and insurance law to the practice. It helps to develop the international horizon and competitiveness of the students.
  
  本课程为选修课。
  The nature of this course is selective courses of law.
  
  二、课程预期效果(Expected Outcome of this Course)
  
  通过学习此课程,学生将熟悉国际贸易法(尤其是国际货物运输与保险法)规则与案例,具备将规则运用于国际实务,并解决国际贸易争端的基本能力。这些效果具体包括:
  After completion of this course, the students are expected to be familiar with cases and practices of international trade law (particularly the carriage and insurance of goods). They are also familiar with the application of the rules into practice and have the basic capacity of solving the international trade disputes. These effects include:
  
  1. 使学生对国际贸易法的法律框架及思维方式有感性认识
  1. To enable the students to have perceptual knowledge about the construction of and the method of reasoning of international trade law.
  
  2. 使学生大致熟悉国际贸易法案例制度;
  2. To help the students to have preliminary knowledge of trade law cases.
  
  3. 使学生基本掌握查找、消化、分析与运用国际贸易判例的方法;
  3. To help2010-3-14 the students to obtain the basic technique of searching, digesting, analyzing and utilizing trade law cases or precedents.
  
  4. 在今后法学理论研究方面,使学生有能力驾驭英文案例;
  4. To help the students to be capable of handling legal cases and precedents in the future study of the theory of Law.
  
  5.在今后实践中,指引学生学会如何应用国际贸易法规则;
  5. To guide students on how to apply international trade rules to the practices.
  
  6. 拓展学生的国际视野,提高法律与专业外语等方面的综合竞争力,明确职业发展方向。
  6.To broaden the international horizon of the students, to enhance their competitiveness in terms of legal knowledge and legal English, and to guide them in terms of their future career development.
  
  三、授课目标和学时学分(Teaching Target and Credits)
  
  本课程针对法学和相关专业各年级本科学生。
  This course is open for undergraduate students specialized in law and related subjects.
  
  本课程30学时,计2学分。
  It is of 30 classes and 2 credits.
  
  四、与其他课程的关系(Linkage between this Course and the Others)
  
  建议选修本课程学生此前已完成国际经济法、民商法、国际私法、国际公法的学习。本课程主要涉及国际经济法、民商法(合同法)、国际私法(民商事法律适用)、国际公法(国际经济组织)等领域。
  To highly recommend students selecting this course to have completed their courses on international economic law, civil and commercial law, private international law, and public international law. The main part of this class involves studying in the field of international economic law, civil and commercial law (contract law), private international law (applicable law in civil and commercial affairs), and public international law (international intergovernmental organizations).
  
  五、授课方式(Teaching Methods)
  
  因本课程内容丰富,但课时数非常有限仅为30学时,为避免讲授在较短时间里流于肤浅介绍,在每年度开课前,给学生提供授课模块菜单,学生根据菜单提出授课内容建议,针对大部分学生的意见确定和细化课程主要内容。
  The substance of this course is very broad and informative, but the course schedule is compressed into 30 hours only. Therefore, prior to the school term every year, we offer our students with the model and selection for our school curriculum, and based on which the students make their choice and give us their suggestion. We will then pinpoint and extract the principal substance from the course according to their feedback. Our lectures will be focused on some particular subject to meet the real needs.
  
  课程主要授课方式:
  
  1.课堂讲授(lectures)
  
  2.案例分析(case studies)
  
  课程其他授课方式
  
  3.讨论课(seminars)
  
  4.学生陈述(presentation)
  
  5.模拟法庭(moot court)
  
  通过多种灵活多样的方式,提高教学质量,最大程度调动学生兴趣,以及积极性和主动性。
  课程讲授全程使用幻灯片,投影仪、教学电脑、话筒、白板等教学工具。
  The course would also be supported by the presentation slides in the form of PowerPoint, projectors, computers, microphones, and whiteboard.
  
  六、师资力量(Teaching Staff)
  
  授课教师主要来自于西南政法大学国际法学院教师,不乏一些我校最早几批获得双语教学资格的教师。大多数教师具有丰富双语教学经验,大多具有美国、英国、加拿大、日本、德国、澳大利亚、瑞士、荷兰等国海外留学和工作经历,能承担授课模块菜单所有课程的中英文讲授任务。此外,还有部分外聘教师及外籍教师。
  The course would be taught by the faculty members from International Law School, Southwest University of Political Science and Law, including those who are one of the first groups of certified SWUPL bilingual teachers. The vast majority of them have rich experience in bilingual teaching, and/or teaching/study experience abroad in the USA, United Kingdom, Canada, Japan, Germany, Australia, Switzerland, or Netherlands. It makes them more capable of teaching all the classes using Chinese and English language in this program. Moreover, there are some foreign teachers from the leading university schools to joint us in this program.
 
  
  七、教材及参考资料(Textbooks and Reference Materials)
  
  推荐教材(Recommended Textbook)
  Ray August, International Business Law(《国际商法), 高等教育出版社2002年版。
  
  主要参考资料(Selected Reference Materials)
  
  1.莫世健,《国际商法》,中国法制出版社/LexisNexis, 2004年。
  
  2.Martin Dockray, Cases and Materials on the Carriage of Goods by Sea, 3rd ed., Routledge-Cavendish, 2004.
  
  3.Howard Bennett, Law of Marine Insurance, Oxford University Press, 2006.
  
  4.John Furness Wilson, Carriage of Goods by Sea, Prentice Hall (UK), 6th Edition, 2007.
  
  5.Stephen D. Girvin, Carriage of Goods by Sea, Oxford University Press, 2007.
  
  6.Malcolm Clarke, Contracts of Carriage by Air, Informa Maritime & Transport, May, 2002.
  
  7.Gerhardt Muller, Intermodal Freight Transportation, 4th Edition, Washington, DC: Transportation Foundation and Intermodal Association of North America, 1999.
  
  8.Donald James Hill, Andrew D. Messent, et al., C.M.R.: Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods by Road, LLP Professional Publishing, 1995.

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  八、教学内容(Course Contents)
  
  This course deals with the case study of international trade law.
  
  Class 1—Chapter 1: International Carriage of Goods by Sea
   1.1 Introduction to International Carriage of Goods by Sea
  
  Class 2—Chapter 1: International Carriage of Goods by Sea (Cont.)
   1.2 Case Study on Carriage of Goods by Sea I (The Owners of Cargo on board the ship "Brij" v. The Owners of the ship "Brij")
  
  Class 3—Chapter 1: International Carriage of Goods by Sea (Cont.)
   1.3 Case Study on Carriage of Goods by Sea II (Carewins Development (China) Ltd v. Bright Fortune Shipping Ltd)
  
  Class 4—Chapter 1: International Carriage of Goods by Sea (Cont.)
   1.4 Case Study on Carriage of Goods by Sea III (In re M/V "DG Harmony" CofA)
  
  Class 5—Chapter 1: International Carriage of Goods by Sea (Cont.)
   1.5 Case Study on Carriage of Goods by Sea IV (New Zealand China Clays Ltd. v. Tasman Orient Line CV)
  
  Class 6—Chapter 2:International Carriage of Goods by Air
   2.1 Introduction to International Carriage of Goods by Air
  
  Class 7—Chapter 2:International Carriage of Goods by Air (Cont.)
   2.2 Case Study on Carriage of Goods by Air I (Povey v. Qantas Airways and British Airways)
  
  Class 8—Chapter 2:International Carriage of Goods by Air (Cont.)
   2.3 Case Study on Carriage of Goods by Air II (Abnett v. British Airways PIc)
  
  Class 9—Chapter 3: International Carriage of Goods by Road
   3.1 Introduction to International Carriage of Goods by Road
  
  Class 10—Chapter 3: International Carriage of Goods by Road (Cont.)
   3.2 Case Study on Carriage of Goods by Road I (Laceys Footwear (Wholesale) Ltd v. Bowler International Freight Ltd)
   3.3 Case Study on Carriage of Goods by Road II (GL Cicatiello v. Anglo European Shipping Services Ltd)
  
  Class 11—Chapter 4: International Multimodal Transport
   4.1 Introduction to International Multimodal Transport
  
  Class 12—Chapter 4: International Multimodal Transport (Cont.)
   4.2 Case Study on Multimodal Transport I (Crayford Freight Services Ltd v. Coral Seatel Navigation Co)
   4.3 Case Study on Multimodal Transport II (Canusa System Ltd v. The Canmar Ambassador)
   4.4 Case Study on Multimodal Transport III (Aqualon (UK) Ltd v. Vallana Shipping Corp)
  
  Class 13—Chapter 5: International Marine Insurance
   5.1 Introduction to International Marine Insurance
  
  Class 14—Chapter 5: International Marine Insurance (Cont.)
   5.2 Case Study on International Marine Insurance I (Underwriters at Lloyds v. Labarca)
  
  Class 15—Chapter 5: International Marine Insurance (Cont.)
   5.3 Case Study on International Marine Insurance II (Daniel L. Uffner v. La Reunion Francaise)
  
  九、教学大纲附录(Annexes to this Teaching Outline)
  
  Annex 1:  The Hague-Visby Rules
  
  Annex 2:  United Nations Convention on the Carriage of Goods by Sea
  
  Annex 3:  Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air
  
  Annex 4: Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules for International Carriage by Air
  
  Annex 5:  United Nations Convention on International Multimodal Transport of Goods
  
  Annex 1: 
  
  The Hague-Visby Rules
  The Hague Rules as Amended by the Brussels Protocol 1968
  
  Article I
   In these Rules the following words are employed, with the meanings set out below:
    (a) 'Carrier' includes the owner or the charterer who enters into a contract of carriage with a shipper.     
    (b) 'Contract of carriage' applies only to contracts of carriage covered by a bill of lading or any similar document of title, in so far as such document relates to the carriage of goods by sea, including any bill of lading or any similar document as aforesaid issued under or pursuant to a charter party from the moment at which such bill of lading or similar document of title regulates the relations between a carrier and a holder of the same.
    (c) 'Goods' includes goods, wares, merchandise, and articles of every kind whatsoever except live animals and cargo which by the contract of carriage is stated as being carried on deck and is so carried.
    (d) 'Ship' means any vessel used for the carriage of goods by sea.
    (e) 'Carriage of goods' covers the period from the time when the goods are loaded on to the time they are discharged from the ship. 
  
  Article II
   Subject to the provisions of Article VI, under every contract of carriage of goods by sea the carrier, in relation to the loading, handling, stowage, carriage, custody, care and discharge of such goods, shall be subject to the responsibilities and liabilities and entitled to the rights and immunities hereinafter set forth.
  
  Article III
   1. The carrier shall be bound before and at the beginning of the voyage to exercise due diligence to:
    (a) Make the ship seaworthy;
    (b) Properly man, equip and supply the ship;
    (c) Make the holds, refrigerating and cool chambers, and all other parts of the ship in which goods are carried, fit and safe for their reception, carriage and preservation.
   2. Subject to the provisions of Article IV, the carrier shall properly and carefully load, handle, stow, carry, keep, care for, and discharge the goods carried.
   3. After receiving the goods into his charge the carrier or the master or agent of the carrier shall, on demand of the shipper, issue to the shipper a bill of lading showing among other things:
    (a) The leading marks necessary for identification of the goods as the same are furnished in writing by the shipper before the loading of such goods starts, provided such marks are stamped or otherwise shown clearly upon the goods if uncovered, or on the cases or coverings in which such goods are contained, in such a manner as should ordinarily remain legible until the end of the voyage.
    (b) Either the number of packages or pieces, or the quantity, or weight, as the case may be, as furnished in writing by the shipper.
    (c) The apparent order and condition of the goods.
  Provided that no carrier, master or agent of the carrier shall be bound to state or show in the bill of lading any marks, number, quantity or weight which he has reasonable ground for suspecting not accurately to represent the goods actually received, or which he has had no reasonable means of checking.
   4. Such a bill of lading shall be prima facie evidence of the receipt by the carrier of the goods as therein described in accordance with paragraph 3 (a), (b) and (c). However, proof to the contrary shall not be admissible when the bill of lading has been transferred to a third party acting in good faith.
   5. The shipper shall be deemed to have guaranteed to the carrier the accuracy at the time of shipment of the marks, number, quantity and weight, as furnished by him, and the shipper shall indemnify the carrier against all loss, damages and expenses arising or resulting from inaccuracies in such particulars. The right of the carrier to such indemnity shall in no way limit his responsibility and liability under the contract of carriage to any person other than the shipper.
   6. Unless notice of loss or damage and the general nature of such loss or damage be given in writing to the carrier or his agent at the port of discharge before or at the time of the removal of the goods into the custody of the person entitled to delivery thereof under the contract of carriage, or, if the loss or damage be not apparent, within three days, such removal shall be prima facie evidence of the delivery by the carrier of the goods as described in the bill of lading.
   The notice in writing need not be given if the state of the goods has, at the time of their receipt, been the subject of joint survey or inspection.
   Subject to paragraph 6 bis the carrier and the ship shall in any event be discharged from all liability whatsoever in respect of the goods, unless suit is brought within one year of their delivery or of the date when they should have been delivered. This period, may however, be extended if the parties so agree after the cause of action has arisen.
   In the case of any actual or apprehended loss or damage the carrier and the receiver shall give all reasonable facilities to each other for inspecting and tallying the goods.
   6 bis. An action for indemnity against a third person may be brought even after the expiration of the year provided for in the preceding paragraph if brought within the time allowed by the law of the Court seized of the case. However, the time allowed shall be not less than three months, commencing from the day when the person bringing such action for indemnity has settled the claim or has been served with process in the action against himself.
   7, After the goods are loaded the bill of lading to be issued by the carrier, master, or agent of the carrier, to the shipper shall, if the shipper so demands be a 'shipped' bill of lading, provided that if the shipper shall have previously taken up any document of title to such goods, he shall surrender the same as against the issue of the 'shipped' bill of lading, but at the option of the carrier such document of title may be noted at the port of shipment by the carrier, master, or agent with the name or names of the ship or ships upon which the goods have been shipped and the date or dates of shipment, and when so noted, if it shows the particulars mentioned in paragraph 3 of Article III, shall for the purpose of this article be deemed to constitute a 'shipped' bill of lading.
   8. Any clause, covenant, or agreement in a contract of carriage relieving the carrier or the ship from liability for loss or damage to, or in connection with, goods arising from negligence, fault, or failure in the duties and obligations provided in this article or lessening such liability otherwise than as provided in these Rules, shall be null and void and of no effect. A benefit of insurance in favour of the carrier or similar clause shall be deemed to be a clause relieving the carrier from liability.
   
  Article IV
   1. Neither the carrier nor the ship shall be liable for loss or damage arising or resulting from unseaworthiness unless caused by want of due diligence on the part of the carrier to make the ship seaworthy, and to secure that the ship is properly manned, equipped and supplied, and to make the holds, refrigerating and cool chambers and all other parts of the ship in which goods are carried fit and safe for their reception, carriage and preservation in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article III. Whenever loss or damage has resulted from unseaworthiness the burden of proving the exercise of due diligence shall be on the carrier or other person claiming exemption under this article.
   2. Neither the carrier nor the ship shall be responsible for loss or damage arising or resulting from:
    (a) Act, neglect, or default of the master, mariner, pilot, or the servants of the carrier in the navigation or in the management of the ship.
    (b) Fire, unless caused by the actual fault or privity of the carrier.
    (c) Perils, dangers and accidents of the sea or other navigable waters.
    (d) Act of God.
    (e) Act of war.
    (f) Act of public enemies.
    (g) Arrest or restraint of princes, rulers or people, or seizure under legal process.
    (h) Quarantine restrictions.
    (i) Act or omission of the shipper or owner of the goods, his agent or representative.
    (j) Strikes or lockouts or stoppage or restraint of labour from whatever cause, whether partial or general.
    (k) Riots and civil commotions.
    (l) Saving or attempting to save life or property at sea.
    (m) Wastage in bulk of weight or any other loss or damage arising from inherent defect, quality or vice of the goods.
    (n) Insufficiency of packing.
    (o) Insufficiency or inadequacy of marks.
    (p) Latent defects not discoverable by due diligence.
    (q) Any other cause arising without the actual fault or privity of the carrier, or without the fault or neglect of the agents or servants of the carrier, but the burden of proof shall be on the person claiming the benefit of this exception to show that neither the actual fault or privity of the carrier nor the fault or neglect of the agents or servants of the carrier contributed to the loss or damage.
   3. The shipper shall not be responsible for loss or damage sustained by the carrier or the ship arising or resulting from any cause without the act, fault or neglect of the shipper, his agents or his servants.
   4. Any deviation in saving or attempting to save life or property at sea or any reasonable deviation shall not be deemed to be an infringement or breach of these Rules or of the contract of carriage, and the carrier shall not be liable for any loss or damage resulting therefrom.
   5 (a) Unless the nature and value of such goods have been declared by the shipper before shipment and inserted in the bill of lading, neither the carrier nor the ship shall in any event be or become liable for any loss or damage to or in connection with the goods in an amount exceeding the equivalent of 666.67 units of account per package or unit or units of account per kilo of gross weight of the goods lost or damaged, whichever is the higher.
     (b) The total amount recoverable shall be calculated by reference to the value of such goods at the place and time at which the goods are discharged from the ship in accordance with the contract or should have been so discharged.
   The value of the goods shall be fixed according to the commodity exchange price, or, if there be no such price, according to the current market price, or, if there be no commodity exchange price or current market price, by reference to the normal value of goods of the same kind and quality.
     (c) Where a container, pallet or similar article of transport is used to consolidate goods, the number of packages or units enumerated in the bill of lading as packed in such article of transport shall be deemed the number of packages or units for the purpose of this paragraph as far as these packages or units are concerned. Except as aforesaid such article of transport shall be considered the package or unit.
     (d) The unit of account mentioned in this Article is the special drawing right as defined by the International Monetary Fund. The amounts mentioned in h_visby/art/art04_5asub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph shall be converted into national currency on the basis of the value of that currency on a date to be determined by the law of the Court seized of the case.
     (e) Neither the carrier nor the ship shall be entitled to the benefit of the limitation of liability provided for in this paragraph if it is proved that the damage resulted from an act or omission of the carrier done with intent to cause damage, or recklessly and with knowledge that damage would probably result.
     (f) The declaration mentioned in sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph, if embodied in the bill of lading, shall be prima facie evidence, but shall not be binding or conclusive on the carrier.
     (g) By agreement between the carrier, master or agent of the carrier and the shipper other maximum amounts than those mentioned in sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph may be fixed, provided that no maximum amount so fixed shall be less than the appropriate maximum mentioned in that sub-paragraph.
     (h) Neither the carrier nor the ship shall be responsible in any event for loss or damage to, or in connection with, goods if the nature or value thereof has been knowingly mis-stated by the shipper in the bill of lading.
   6. Goods of an inflammable, explosive or dangerous nature to the shipment whereof the carrier, master or agent of the carrier has not consented with knowledge of their nature and character, may at any time before discharge be landed at any place, or destroyed or rendered innocuous by the carrier without compensation and the shipper of such goods shall be liable for all damages and expenses directly or indirectly arising out of or resulting from such shipment. If any such goods shipped with such knowledge and consent shall become a danger to the ship or cargo, they may in like manner be landed at any place, or destroyed or rendered innocuous by the carrier without liability on the part of the carrier except to general average, if any.
  
  Article IV bis
   1. The defences and limits of liability provided for in these Rules shall apply in any action against the carrier in respect of loss or damage to goods covered by a contract of carriage whether the action be founded in contract or in tort.
   2. If such an action is brought against a servant or agent of the carrier (such servant or agent not being an independent contractor), such servant or agent shall be entitled to avail himself of the defences and limits of liability which the carrier is entitled to invoke under these Rules.
   3. The aggregate of the amounts recoverable from the carrier, and such servants and agents, shall in no case exceed the limit provided for in these Rules.
   4. Nevertheless, a servant or agent of the carrier shall not be entitled to avail himself of the provisions of this article, if it is proved that the damage resulted from an act or omission of the servant or agent done with intent to cause damage or recklessly and with knowledge that damage would probably result.  
  
  Article V
   A carrier shall be at liberty to surrender in whole or in part all or any of his rights and immunities or to increase any of his responsibilities and obligations under these Rules, provided such surrender or increase shall be embodied in the bill of lading issued to the shipper. The provisions of these Rules shall not be applicable to charter parties, but if bills of lading are issued in the case of a ship under a charter party they shall comply with the terms of these Rules. Nothing in these Rules shall be held to prevent the insertion in a bill of lading of any lawful provision regarding general average.
  
  Article VI
   Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding articles, a carrier, master or agent of the carrier and a shipper shall in regard to any particular goods be at liberty to enter into any agreement in any terms as to the responsibility and liability of the carrier for such goods, and as to the rights and immunities of the carrier in respect of such goods, or his obligation as to seaworthiness, so far as this stipulation is not contrary to public policy, or the care or diligence of his servants or agents in regard to the loading, handling, stowage, carriage, custody, care and discharge of the goods carried by sea, provided that in this case no bill of lading has been or shall be issued and that the terms agreed shall be embodied in a receipt which shall be a non-negotiable document and shall be marked as such.
   An agreement so entered into shall have full legal effect.
   Provided that this article shall not apply to ordinary commercial shipments made in the ordinary course of trade, but only to other shipments where the character or condition of the property to be carried or the circumstances, terms and conditions under which the carriage is to be performed are such as reasonably to justify a special agreement.
  
  Article VII
   Nothing herein contained shall prevent a carrier or a shipper from entering into any agreement, stipulation, condition, reservation or exemption as to the responsibility and liability of the carrier or the ship for the loss or damage to, or in connection with, the custody and care and handling of goods prior to the loading on, and subsequent to the discharge from, the ship on which the goods are carried by sea.
  
  Article VIII
   The provisions of these Rules shall not affect the rights and obligations of the carrier under any statute for the time being in force relating to the limitation of the liability of owners of sea-going vessels.  
  
  Article IX
   These Rules shall not affect the provisions of any international Convention or national law governing liability for nuclear damage.
  
  Article X  
   The provisions of these Rules shall apply to every bill of lading relating to the carriage of goods between ports in two different States if
    (a) the bill of lading is issued in a contracting State, or
    (b) the carriage is from a port in a contracting State, or
    (c) the contract contained in or evidenced by the bill of lading provides that these Rules or legislation of any State giving effect to them are to govern the contract;
   whatever may be the nationality of the ship, the carrier, the shipper, the consignee, or any other interested person.
    (The last two paragraphs of this Article are not reproduced. They require contracting States to apply the Rules to bills of lading mentioned in the Article and authorise them to apply the Rules to other bills of lading).
    (Article 11 to 16 of the International Convention for the unification of certain rules of law relating to bills of lading signed at Brussels on August 25, 1974 are not reproduced. They deal with the coming into force of the Convention, procedure for ratification, accession and denunciation and the right to call for a fresh conference to consider amendments to the Rules contained in the Convention).
  
  Annex 2: 
   United Nations Convention on the Carriage of Goods by Sea
   (The Hamburg Rules) Hamburg, 30 March 1978
   
  [Preamble]
   The States Parties to this Convention,
   Having recognised the desirability of determining by agreement certain rules relating to the carriage of goods by sea,  Have decided to conclude a Convention for this purpose and have thereto agreed as follows:

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  PART I - GENERAL PROVISIONS
 
  Article 1 - Definitions
   In this Convention:
   1. "Carrier" means any person by whom or in whose name a contract of carriage of goods by sea has been concluded with a shipper.
   2. "Actual carrier" means any person to whom the performance of the carriage of the goods, or of part of the carriage, has been entrusted by the carrier, and includes any other person to whom such performance has been entrusted.
   3. "Shipper" means any person by whom or in whose name or on whose behalf a contract of carriage of goods by sea has been concluded with a carrier, or any person by whom or in whose name or on whose behalf the goods are actually delivered to the carrier in relation to the contract of carriage by sea.
   4. "Consignee" means the person entitled to take delivery of the goods.
   5. "Goods" includes live animals; where the goods are consolidated in a container, pallet or similarArticle of transport or where they are packed, "goods" includes suchArticle of transport or packaging if supplied by the shipper.
   6. "Contract of carriage by sea" means any contract whereby the carrier undertakes against payment of freight to carry goods by sea from one port to another; however, a contract which involves carriage by sea and also carriage by some other means is deemed to be a contract of carriage by sea for the purposes of this Convention only in so far as it relates to the carriage by sea.
   7. "Bill of lading" means a document which evidences a contract of carriage by sea and the taking over or loading of the goods by the carrier, and by which the carrier undertakes to deliver the goods against surrender of the document. A provision in the document that the goods are to be delivered to the order of a named person, or to order, or to bearer, constitutes such an undertaking.
   8. "Writing" includes, inter alia, telegram and telex.
  
  Article 2 - Scope of application
   1. The provisions of this Convention are applicable to all contracts of carriage by sea between two different States, if:
    (a)The port of loading as provided for in the contract of carriage by sea is located in a Contracting State, or
   (b) The port of discharge as provided for in the contract of carriage by sea is located in a Contracting State, or
   (c) One of the optional ports of discharge provided for in the contract of carriage by sea is the actual port of discharge and such port is located in a Contracting State, or
   (d) The bill of lading or other document evidencing the contract of carriage by sea is issued in a Contracting State, or
   (e) The bill of lading or other document evidencing the contract of carriage by sea provides that the provisions of this Convention or the legislation of any State giving effect to them are to govern the contract.
  2. The provisions of this Convention are applicable without regard to the nationality of the ship, the carrier, the actual carrier, the shipper, the consignee or any other interested person.
  3. The provisions of this Convention are not applicable to charter-parties. However, where a bill of lading is issued pursuant to a charter-party, the provisions of the Convention apply to such a bill of lading if it governs the relation between the carrier and the holder of the bill of lading, not being the charterer.
  4. If a contract provides for future carriage of goods in a series of shipments during an agreed period, the provisions of this Convention apply to each shipment. However, where a shipment is made under a charter-party, the provisions of paragraph 3 of thisArticle apply.
  
  Article 3 - Interpretation of the Convention
   In the interpretation and application of the provisions of this Convention regard shall be had to its international character and to the need to promote uniformity.
  
  PART II - LIABILITY OF THE CARRIER
  
  Article 4 - Period of responsibility
   1. The responsibility of the carrier for the goods under this Convention covers the period during which the carrier is in charge of the goods at the port of loading, during the carriage and at the port of discharge.
   2. For the purpose of paragraph 1 of thisArticle, the carrier is deemed to be in charge of the goods
    (a) From the time he has taken over the goods from:
    (i) The shipper, or a person acting on his behalf; or
    (ii) An authority or other third party to whom, pursuant to law or regulations applicable at the port of loading, the goods must be handed over for shipment;
   (b) Until the time he has delivered the goods:
    (i) By handing over the goods to the consignee; or
    (ii) In cases where the consignee does not receive the goods from the carrier, by placing them at the disposal of the consignee in accordance with the contract or with the law or with the usage of the particular trade, applicable at the port of discharge, or
    (iii) By handing over the goods to an authority or other third party to whom, pursuant to law or regulations applicable at the port of discharge, the goods must be handed over.
   3. In paragraphs 1 and 2 of thisArticle, reference to the carrier or to the consignee means, in addition to the carrier or the consignee, the servants or agents, respectively of the carrier or the consignee.
  
  Article 5 - Basis of liability
   1. The carrier is liable for loss resulting from loss of or damage to the goods, as well as from delay in delivery, if the occurrence which caused the loss, damage or delay took place while the goods were in his charge as defined inArticle 4, unless the carrier proves that he, his servants or agents took all measures that could reasonably be required to avoid the occurrence and its consequences.
   2. Delay in delivery occurs when the goods have not been delivered at the port of discharge provided for in the contract of carriage by sea within the time expressly agreed upon or, in the absence of such agreement, within the time which it would be reasonable to require of a diligent carrier, having regard to the circumstances of the case.
   3. The person entitled to make a claim for the loss of goods may treat the goods as lost if they have not been delivered as required by article 4 within 60 consecutive days following the expiry of the time for delivery according to paragraph 2 of thisArticle.
   4. (a) The carrier is liable
     (i) For loss or damage to the goods or delay in delivery caused by fire, if the claimant proves that the fire arose from fault or neglect on the part of the carrier, his servants or agents;
     (ii) For such loss, damage or delay in delivery which is proved by the claimant to have resulted from the fault or neglect of the carrier, his servants or agents, in taking all measures that could reasonably be required to put out the fire and avoid or mitigate its consequences.
    (b) In case of fire on board the ship affecting the goods, if the claimant or the carrier so desires, a survey in accordance with shipment practices must be held into the cause and circumstances of the fire, and a copy of the surveyor's report shall be made available on demand to the carrier and the claimant.
   5. With respect to live animals, the carrier is not liable for loss, damage or delay in delivery resulting from any special risks inherent in that kind of carriage. If the carrier proves that he has complied with any special instructions given to him by the shipper respecting the animals and that, in the circumstances of the case, the loss, damage or delay in delivery could be attributed to such risks, it is presumed that the loss, damage or delay in delivery was so caused, unless there is proof that all or a part of the loss, damage or delay in delivery resulted from fault or neglect on the part of the carrier, his servants or agents.
   6. The carrier is not liable, except in general average, where loss, damage or delay in delivery resulted from measures to save life or from reasonable measures to save property at sea.
   7. Where fault or neglect on the part of the carrier, his servants or agents combines with another cause to produce loss, damage or delay in delivery the carrier is liable only to the extent that the loss, damage or delay in delivery is attributable to such fault or neglect, provided that the carrier proves the amount of the loss, damage or delay in delivery not attributable thereto.  
  
  Article 6 - Limits of liability
   1. (a) The liability of the carrier for loss resulting from loss of or damage to goods according to the provisions ofArticle 5 is limited to an amount equivalent to 835 units of account per package or other shipping unit or 2.5 units of account per kilogram of gross weight of the goods lost or damaged, whichever is the higher.
      (b) The liability of the carrier for delay in delivery according to the provisions ofArticle 5 is limited to an amount equivalent to two and a half times the freight payable for the goods delayed, but no exceeding the total freight payable under the contract of carriage of goods by sea.
      (c) In no case shall the aggregate liability of the carrier, under both subparagraphs (a) and (b) of this paragraph, exceed the limitation which would be established under subparagraph (a) of this paragraph for total loss of the goods with respect to which such liability was incurred.
   2. For the purpose of calculating which amount is the higher in accordance with paragraph 1 (a) of thisArticle, the following rules apply:
      (a) Where a container, pallet or similarArticle of transport is used to consolidate goods, the package or other shipping units enumerated in the bill of lading, if issued, or otherwise in any other document evidencing the contract of carriage by sea, as packed in suchArticle of transport are deemed packages or shipping units. Except as aforesaid the goods in suchArticle of transport are deemed one shipping unit.
      (b) In cases where theArticle of transport itself has been lost or damaged, thatArticle of transport, if not owned or otherwise supplied by the carrier, is considered one separate shipping unit.
   3. Unit of account means the unit of account mentioned inArticle 26.
   4. By agreement between the carrier and the shipper, limits of liability exceeding those provided for in paragraph 1 may be fixed.
  
  Article 7 - Application to non-contractual claims
   1. The defences and limits of liability provided for in this Convention apply in any action against the carrier in respect of loss or damage to the goods covered by the contract of carriage by sea, as well as of delay in delivery whether the action is founded in contract, in tort or otherwise.
   2. If such action is brought against a servant or agent of the carrier, such servant or agent, if he proves that he acted within the scope of his employment, is entitled to avail himself of the defences and limits of liability which the carrier is entitled to invoke under this Convention.
   3. Except as provided inArticle 8, the aggregate of the amounts recoverable from the carrier and from any persons referred to in paragraph 2 of thisArticle shall not exceed the limits of liability provided for in this Convention.
  
  Article 8 - Loss of right to limit responsibility
   1. The carrier is not entitled to the benefit of the limitation of liability provided for inArticle 6 if it is proved that the loss, damage or delay in delivery resulted from an act or omission of the carrier done with the intent to cause such loss, damage or delay, or recklessly and with knowledge that such loss, damage or delay would probably result.
   2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2 ofArticle 7, a servant or agent of the carrier is not entitled to the benefit of the limitation of liability provided for inArticle 6 if it is proved that the loss, damage or delay in delivery resulted from an act or omission of such servant or agent, done with the intent to cause such loss, damage or delay, or recklessly and with knowledge that such loss, damage or delay would probably result.
   
  Article 9 - Deck cargo
   1. The carrier is entitled to carry the goods on deck only if such carriage is in accordance with an agreement with the shipper or with the usage of the particular trade or is required by statutory rules or regulations.
   2. If the carrier and the shipper have agreed that the goods shall or may be carried on deck, the carrier must insert in the bill of lading or other document evidencing the contract of carriage by sea a statement to that effect. In the absence of such statement the carrier has the burden of proving that an agreement for carriage on deck has been entered into; however, the carrier is not entitled to invoke such an agreement against a third party, including a consignee, who has acquired the bill of lading in good faith.
   3. Where the goods have been carried on deck contrary to the provisions of paragraph 1 of thisArticle or where the carrier may not under paragraph 2 of thisArticle invoke an agreement for carriage on deck, the carrier, notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 of article 5, is liable for loss of or damage to the goods, as well as for delay in delivery, resulting solely from the carriage on deck, and the extent of his liability is to be determined in accordance with the provisions ofArticle 6 orArticle 8 of this Convention, as the case may be.
   4. Carriage of goods on deck contrary to express agreement for carriage under deck is deemed to be an act or omission of the carrier within the meaning ofArticle 8.
   
  Article 10 - Liability of the carrier and actual carrier
   1. Where the performance of the carriage or part thereof has been entrusted to an actual carrier, whether or not in pursuance of a liberty under the contract of carriage by sea to do so, the carrier nevertheless remains responsible for the entire carriage according to the provisions of this Convention. The carrier is responsible, in relation to the carriage performed by the actual carrier, for the acts and omissions of the actual carrier and of his servants and agents acting within the scope of their employment.
   2. All the provisions of this Convention governing the responsibility of the carrier also apply to the responsibility of the actual carrier for the carriage performed by him. The provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 ofArticle 7 and of paragraph 2 ofArticle 8 apply if an action is brought against a servant or agent of the actual carrier.
   3. Any special agreement under which the carrier assumes obligations not imposed by this Convention or waives rights conferred by this Convention affects the actual carrier only if agreed to by him expressly and in writing. Whether or not the actual carrier has so agreed, the carrier nevertheless remains bound by the obligations or waivers resulting from such special agreement.
   4. Where and to the extent that both the carrier and the actual carrier are liable, their liability is joint and several.
   5. The aggregate of the amounts recoverable from the carrier, the actual carrier and their servants and agents shall not exceed the limits of liability provided for in this Convention.
   6. Nothing in thisArticle shall prejudice any right of recourse as between the carrier and the actual carrier.
   
  Article 11- Through carriage
   1. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 ofArticle 10, where a contract of carriage by sea provides explicitly that a specified part of the carriage covered by the said contract is to be performed by a named person other than the carrier, the contract may also provide that the carrier is not liable for loss, damage or delay in delivery caused by an occurrence which takes place while the goods are in the charge of the actual carrier during such part of the carriage. Nevertheless, any stipulation limiting or excluding such liability is without effect if no judicial proceedings can be instituted against the actual carrier in a court competent under paragraph 1 or 2 of article 21. The burden of proving that any loss, damage or delay in delivery has been caused by such an occurrence rests upon the carrier.
   2. The actual carrier is responsible in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 2 ofArticle 10 for loss, damage or delay in delivery caused by an occurrence which takes place while the goods are in his charge. 

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  PART III - LIABILITY OF THE SHIPPER
  
  Article 12- General rule
   The shipper is not liable for loss sustained by the carrier or the actual carrier, or for damage sustained by the ship, unless such loss or damage was caused by the fault or neglect of the shipper, his servants or agents. Nor is any servant or agent of the shipper liable for such loss or damage unless the loss or damage was caused by fault or neglect on his part.
  
  Article 13 - Special rules on dangerous goods
   1. The shipper must mark or label in a suitable manner dangerous goods as dangerous.
   2. Where the shipper hands over dangerous goods to the carrier or an actual carrier, as the case may be, the shipper must inform him of the dangerous character of the goods and, if necessary, of the precautions to be taken. If the shipper fails to do so and such carrier or actual carrier does not otherwise have knowledge of their dangerous character:
    (a) The shipper is liable to the carrier and any actual carrier for the loss resulting from the shipment of such goods, and
    (b) The goods may at any time be unloaded, destroyed or rendered innocuous, as the circumstances may require, without payment of compensation.
   3. The provisions of paragraph 2 of thisArticle may not be invoked by any person if during the carriage he has taken the goods in his charge with knowledge of their dangerous character.
   4. If, in cases where the provisions of paragraph 2, subparagraph (b), of thisArticle do not apply or may not be invoked, dangerous goods become an actual danger to life or property, they may be unloaded, destroyed or rendered innocuous, as the circumstances may require, without payment of compensation except where there is an obligation to contribute in general average or where the carrier is liable in accordance with the provisions ofArticle 5.  
  
  PART IV - TRANSPORT DOCUMENTS
  
  Article 14 - Issue of bill of lading
   1. When the carrier or the actual carrier takes the goods in his charge, the carrier must, on demand of the shipper, issue to the shipper a bill of lading.
   2. The bill of lading may be signed by a person having authority from the carrier. A bill of lading signed by the master of the ship carrying the goods is deemed to have been signed on behalf of the carrier.
   3. The signature on the bill of lading may be in handwriting, printed in facsimile, perforated, stamped, in symbols, or made by any other mechanical or electronic means, if no inconsistent with the law of the country where the bill of lading is issued.
  
  Article 15- Contents of bill of lading
   1. The bill of lading must include, inter alia, the following particulars:
    (a) The general nature of the goods, the leading marks necessary for identification of the goods, an express statement, if applicable, as to the dangerous character of the goods, the number of packages or pieces, and the weight of the goods or their quantity otherwise expressed, all such particulars as furnished by the shipper;
    (b) the apparent condition of the goods;
    (c) the name and principal place of business of the carrier;
    (d) the name of the shipper;
    (e) the consignee if named by the shipper;
    (f) the port of loading under the contract of carriage by sea and the date on which the goods were taken over by the carrier at the port of loading;
    (g) the port of discharge under the contract of carriage by sea;
    (h) the number of originals of the bill of lading, if more than one;
    (i) the place of issuance of the bill of lading;
    (j) the signature of the carrier or a person acting on his behalf;
    (k) the freight to the extent payable by the consignee or other indication that freight is payable by him;
    (l) the statement referred to in paragraph 3 ofArticle 23;
    (m) the statement, if applicable, that the goods shall or may be carried on deck;
    (n) the date or the period of delivery of the goods at the port of discharge if expressly agreed upon between the parties; and
    (o) any increased limit or limits of liability where agreed in accordance with paragraph 4 ofArticle 6.
   2. After the goods have been loaded on board, if the shipper so demands, the carrier must issue to the shipper a "shipped" bill of lading which, in addition to the particulars required under paragraph 1 of thisArticle, must state that the goods are on board a named ship or ships, and the date or dates of loading. If the carrier has previously issued to the shipper a bill of lading or other document of title with respect to any of such goods, on request of the carrier, the shipper must surrender such document in exchange for a "shipped" bill of lading. The carrier may amend any previously issued document in order to meet the shipper's demand for a "shipped" bill of lading if, as amended, such document includes all the information required to be contained in a "shipped" bill of lading.
   3. The absence in the bill of lading of one or more particulars referred to in thisArticle does not affect the legal character of the document as a bill of lading provided that it nevertheless meets the requirements set out in paragraph 7 ofArticle 1.
  
  Article 16 - Bills of lading: reservations and evidentiary effect
   1. If the bill of lading contains particulars concerning the general nature, leading marks, number of packages or pieces, weight or quantity of the goods which the carrier or other person issuing the bill of lading on his behalf knows or has reasonable grounds to suspect do not accurately represent the goods actually taken over or, where a "shipped" bill of lading is issued, loaded, or if he had no reasonable means of checking such particulars, the carrier or such other person must insert in the bill of lading a reservation specifying these inaccuracies, grounds of suspicion or the absence of reasonable means of checking.
   2. If the carrier or other person issuing the bill of lading on his behalf fails to note on the bill of lading the apparent condition of the goods, he is deemed to have noted on the bill of lading that the goods were in apparent good condition.
   3. Except for particulars in respect of which and to the extent to which a reservation permitted under paragraph 1 of thisArticle has been entered:
    (a) The bill of lading is prima facie evidence of the taking over or, where a "shipped" bill of lading is issued, loading, by the carrier of the goods as described in the bill of lading; and
    (b) Proof to the contrary by the carrier is not admissible if the bill of lading has been transferred to a third party, including a consignee, who in good faith has acted in reliance on the description of the goods therein.
   4. A bill of lading which does not, as provided in paragraph 1, subparagraph (h) ofArticle 15, set forth the freight or otherwise indicate that freight is payable by the consignee or does not set forth demurrage incurred at the port of loading payable by the consignee, is prima facie evidence that no freight or such demurrage is payable by him. However, proof to the contrary by the carrier is not admissible when the bill of lading has been transferred to a third party, including a consignee, who in good faith has acted in reliance on the absence in the bill of lading of any such indication. 
   
  Article 17 - Guarantees by the shipper
   1. The shipper is deemed to have guaranteed to the carrier the accuracy of particulars relating to the general nature of the goods, their marks, number, weight and quantity as furnished by him for insertion in the bill of lading. The shipper must indemnify the carrier against the loss resulting from inaccuracies in such particulars. The shipper remains liable even if the bill of lading has been transferred by him. The right of the carrier to such indemnity in no way limits his liability under the contract of carriage by sea to any person other than the shipper.
   2. Any letter of guarantee or agreement by which the shipper undertakes to indemnify the carrier against loss resulting from the issuance of the bill of lading by the carrier, or by a person acting on his behalf, without entering a reservation relating to particulars furnished by the shipper for insertion in the bill of lading, or to the apparent condition of the goods, is void and of no effect as against any third party, including a consignee, to whom the bill of lading has been transferred.
   3. Such letter of guarantee or agreement is valid as against the shipper unless the carrier or the person acting on his behalf, by omitting the reservation referred to in paragraph 2 of thisArticle, intends to defraud a third party, including a consignee, who acts in reliance on the description of the goods in the bill of lading. In the latter case, if the reservation omitted relates to particulars furnished by the shipper for insertion in the bill of lading, the carrier has no right of indemnity from the shipper pursuant to paragraph 1 of thisArticle.
   4. In the case of intended fraud referred to in paragraph 3 of this article the carrier is liable, without the benefit of the limitation of liability provided for in this Convention, for the loss incurred by a third party, including a consignee, because he has acted in reliance on the description of the goods in the bill of lading.
   
  Article 18 - Documents other than bills of lading
   Where a carrier issues a document other than a bill of lading to evidence the receipt of the goods to be carried, such a document is prima facie evidence of the conclusion of the contract of carriage by sea and the taking over by the carrier of the goods as therein described.
  
  PART V - CLAIMS AND ACTIONS
  
  Article 19 - Notice of loss, damage or delay
   1. Unless notice of loss or damage, specifying the general nature of such loss or damage, is given in writing by the consignee to the carrier not later than the working day after the day when the goods were handed over to the consignee, such handing over is prima facie evidence of the delivery by the carrier of the goods as described in the document of transport or, if no such document has been issued, in good condition.
   2. Where the loss or damage is not apparent, the provisions of paragraph 1 of thisArticle apply correspondingly if notice in writing is not given within 15 consecutive days after the day when the goods were handed over to the consignee.
   3. If the state of the goods at the time they were handed over to the consignee has been the subject of a joint survey or inspection by the parties, notice in writing need not be given of loss or damage ascertained during such survey or inspection.
   4. In the case of any actual or apprehended loss or damage the carrier and the consignee must give all reasonable facilities to each other for inspecting and tallying the goods.
   5. No compensation shall be payable for loss resulting from delay in delivery unless a notice has been given in writing to the carrier within 60 consecutive days after the day when the goods were handed over to the consignee.
   6. If the goods have been delivered by an actual carrier, any notice given under thisArticle to him shall have the same effect as if it had been given to the carrier, and any notice given to the carrier shall have effect as if given to such actual carrier.
   7. Unless notice of loss or damage, specifying the general nature of the loss or damage, is given in writing by the carrier or actual carrier to the shipper not later than 90 consecutive days after the occurrence of such loss or damage or after the delivery of the goods in accordance with paragraph 2 ofArticle 4, whichever is later, the failure to give such notice is prima facie evidence that the carrier or the actual carrier has sustained no loss or damage due to the fault or neglect of the shipper, his servants or agents.
   8. For the purpose of thisArticle, notice given to a person acting on the carrier's or the actual carriers' behalf, including the master or the officer in charge of the ship, or to a person acting on the shipper's behalf is deemed to have been given to the carrier, to the actual carrier or to the shipper, respectively.
   
  Article 20 - Limitation of actions
   1. Any action relating to carriage of goods under this Convention is time-barred if judicial or arbitral proceedings have not been instituted within a period of two years.
   2. The limitation period commences on the day on which the carrier has delivered the goods or part thereof or, in cases where no goods have been delivered, on the last day on which the goods should have been delivered.
   3. The day on which the limitation period commences is not included in the period.
   4. The person against whom a claim is made may at any time during the running of the limitation period extend that period by a declaration in writing to the claimant. This period may be further extended by another declaration or declarations.
   5. An action for indemnity by a person held liable may be instituted even after the expiration of the limitation period provided for in the preceding paragraphs if instituted within the time allowed by the law of the State where proceedings are instituted. However, the time allowed shall not be less than 90 days commencing from the day when the person instituting such action for indemnity has settled the claim or has been served with process in the action against himself.
   
  Article 21 - Jurisdiction
   1. In judicial proceedings relating to carriage of goods under this Convention the plaintiff, at his option, may institute an action in a court which, according to the law of the State where the court is situated, is competent and within the jurisdiction of which is situated one of the following places:
      (a) The principal place of business or, in the absence thereof, the habitual residence of the defendant; or
      (b) The place where the contract was made provided that the defendant has there a place of business, branch or agency through which the contract was made; or
      (c) The port of loading or the port of discharge; or
      (d) Any additional place designated for that purpose in the contract of carriage by sea.
   2. (a) Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of thisArticle, an action may be instituted in the courts of any port or place in a Contracting State at which the carrying vessel or any other vessel of the same ownership may have been arrested in accordance with applicable rules of the law of that State and of international law. However, in such a case, at the petition of the defendant, the claimant must remove the action, at his choice, to one of the jurisdictions referred to in paragraph 1 of thisArticle for the determination of the claim, but before such removal the defendant must furnish security sufficient to ensure payment of any judgement that may subsequently be awarded to the claimant in the action.
      (b) All questions relating to the sufficiency or otherwise of the security shall be determined by the court of the port or place of the arrest.
   3. No judicial proceedings relating to carriage of goods under this Convention may be instituted in a place not specified in paragraph 1 or 2 of thisArticle. The provisions of this paragraph do not constitute an obstacle to the jurisdiction of the Contracting States for provisional or protective measures.
   4. (a) Where an action has been instituted in a court competent under paragraph i or 2 of thisArticle or where judgement has been delivered by such a court, no new action may be started between the same parties on the same grounds unless the judgement of the court before which the first action instituted is not enforceable in the country in which the new proceedings are instituted.
      (b) For the purpose of thisArticle the institution of measures with a view to obtaining enforcement of a judgement is not to be considered as the starting of a new action;
      (c) For the purpose of thisArticle, the removal of an action to a different court within the same country, or to a court in another country, in accordance with paragraph 2 (a) of thisArticle, is not to be considered as the starting of a new action.
   5. Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding paragraphs, an agreement made by the parties, after a claim under the contract of carriage by sea has arisen, which designates the place where the claimant may institute an action, is effective.
   
  Article 22 - Arbitration
   1. Subject to the provisions of thisArticle, parties may provide by agreement evidenced in writing that any dispute that may arise relating to carriage of goods under this Convention shall be referred to arbitration.
   2. Where a charter-party contains a provision that disputes arising thereunder shall be referred to arbitration and a bill of lading issued pursuant to the charterparty does not contain a special annotation providing that such provision shall be binding upon the holder of the bill of lading, the carrier may not invoke such provision as against a holder having acquired the bill of lading in good faith.
   3. The arbitration proceedings shall, at the option of the claimant, be instituted at one of the following places:
    (a) A place in a State within whose territory is situated:
     (i) The principal place of business of the defendant or, in the absence thereof, the habitual residence of the defendant; or
     (ii) The place where the contract was made, provided that the defendant has there a place of business, branch or agency through which the contract was made; or
     (iii) The port of loading or the port of discharge; or
    (b) Any place designated for that purpose in the arbitration clause or agreement.
   4. The arbitrator or arbitration tribunal shall apply the rules of this Convention.
   5. The provisions of paragraph 3 and 4 of thisArticle are deemed to be part of every arbitration clause or agreement, and any term of such clause or agreement which is inconsistent therewith is null and void.
   6. Nothing in thisArticle affects the validity of an agreement relating to arbitration made by the parties after the claim under the contract of carriage by sea has arisen.

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  PART VI - SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS
  
  Article 23 - Contractual stipulations
   1. Any stipulation in a contract of carriage by sea, in a bill of lading, or in any other document evidencing the contract of carriage by sea is null and void to the extent that it derogates, directly or indirectly, from the provisions of this Convention. The nullity of such a stipulation does not affect the validity of the other provisions of the contract or document of which it forms a part. A clause assigning benefit of insurance of the goods in favour of the carrier, or any similar clause, is null and void.
   2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 of thisArticle, a carrier may increase his responsibilities and obligations under this Convention.
   3. Where a bill of lading or any other document evidencing the contract of carriage by sea is issued, it must contain a statement that the carriage is subject to the provisions of this Convention which nullify any stipulation derogating therefrom to the detriment of the shipper or the consignee.
   4. Where the claimant in respect of the goods has incurred loss as a result of a stipulation which is null and void by virtue of the presentArticle, or as a result of the omission of the statement referred to in paragraph 3 of thisArticle, the carrier must pay compensation to the extent required in order to give the claimant compensation in accordance with the provisions of this Convention for any loss of or damage to the goods as well as for delay in delivery. The carrier must, in addition pay compensation for costs incurred by the claimant for the purpose of exercising his right, provided that costs incurred in the action where the foregoing provision is invoked are to be determined in accordance with the law of the State where proceedings are instituted.
  
  Article 24 - General average
   1. Nothing in this Convention shall prevent the application of provisions in the contract of carriage by sea or national law regarding the adjustment of general average.
   2. With the exception ofArticle 20, the provisions of this Convention relating to the liability of the carrier for loss of or damage to the goods also determine whether the consignee may refuse contribution in general average and the liability of the carrier to indemnify the consignee in respect of any such contribution made or any salvage paid.
  
  Article 25 - Other conventions
   1. This Convention does not modify the rights or duties of the carrier, the actual carrier and their servants and agents, provided for in international conventions or national law relating to the limitation of liability of owners of seagoing ships.
   2. The provisions ofArticles 21 and 22 of this Convention do not prevent the application of the mandatory provisions of any other multilateral convention already in force at the date of this Convention relating to matters dealt with in the saidArticles, provided that the dispute arises exclusively between parties having their principal place of business in States members of such other convention. However, this paragraph does not affect the application of paragraph 4 ofArticle 22 of this Convention.
   3. No liability shall arise under the provisions of this Convention for damage caused by a nuclear incident if the operator of a nuclear installation is liable for such damage:
    (a) Under either the Paris Convention of 29 July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy as amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964 or the Vienna Convention of 21 May 1963 on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, or
    (b) By virtue of national law governing the liability for such damage, provided that such law is in all respects as favourable to persons who may suffer damage as either the Paris or Vienna Conventions.
   4. No liability that arise under the provisions of this Convention for any loss of or damage to or delay in delivery of luggage for which the carrier is responsible under any international convention or national law relating to the carriage of passengers and their luggage by sea.
   5. Nothing contained in this Convention prevents a Contracting State from applying any other international convention which is already in force at the date of this Convention and which applies mandatorily to contracts of carriage of goods primarily by a mode of transport other than transport by sea. This provision also applies to any subsequent revision or amendment of such international convention.
  
  Article 26 - Unit of account
   l. The unit of account referred to inArticle 6 of this Convention is the Special Drawing Right as defined by the International Monetary Fund. The amounts mentioned inArticle 6 are to be converted into the national currency of a State according to the value of such currency at the date of judgement or the date agreed upon by the parties. The value of a national currency, in terms of the Special Drawing Right, of a Contracting State which is a member of the International Monetary Fund is to be calculated in accordance with the method of valuation applied by the International Monetary Fund in effect at the date in question for its operations and transactions. The value of a national currency in terms of the Special Drawing Right of a Contracting State which is not a member of the International Monetary Fund is to be calculated in a manner determined by that State.
   2. Nevertheless, those States which are not members of the International Monetary Fund and whose law does not permit the application of the provisions of paragraph i of thisArticle may, at the time of signature, or at the time of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession or at any time thereafter, declare that the limits of liability provided for in this Convention to be applied in their territories shall be fixed as: 12,500 monetary units per package or other shipping unit or 37.5 monetary units per kilogram of gross weight of the goods.
   3. The monetary unit referred to in paragraph 2 of thisArticle corresponds to sixty-five and a half milligrams of gold of millesimal fineness nine hundred. The conversion of the amounts referred to in paragraph 2 into the national currency is to be made according to the law of the State concerned.
   4. The calculation mentioned in the last sentence of paragraph I and the conversion mentioned in paragraph 3 of thisArticle is to be made in such a manner as to express in the national currency of the Contracting State as far as possible the same real value for the amounts inArticle 6 as is expressed there in units of account. Contracting States must communicate to the depositary the manner of calculation pursuant to paragraph 1 of thisArticle, or the result of the conversion mentioned in paragraph 3 of thisArticle, as the case may be, at the time of signature or when depositing their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, or when availing themselves of the option provided for in paragraph 2 of thisArticle and whenever there is a change in the manner of such calculation or in the result of such conversion.
  
  PART VII - FINAL CLAUSES  
  
  Article 27- Depositary
   The Secretary-General of the United Nations is hereby designated as the depositary of this Convention. 
  
  Article 28 - Signature, ratification, acceptance, approval, accession
   1. This Convention is open for signature by all States until 30 April 1979 at the Headquarters of the United Nations, New York.
   2. This Convention is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by the signatory States.
   3. After 30 April 1979, this Convention will be open for accession by all States which are not signatory States.
   4. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval and accession are to be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
  
  Article 29- Reservations
   No reservations may be made to this Convention.
  
  Article 30 - Entry into force
   1. This Convention enters into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of one year from the date of deposit of the 20th instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
   2. For each State which becomes a Contracting State to this Convention after the date of the deposit of the 20th instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, this Convention enters into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of one year after the deposit of the appropriate instrument on behalf of that State.
   3. Each Contracting State shall apply the provisions of this Convention to contracts of carriage by sea concluded on or after the date of the entry into force of this Convention in respect of that State.
  
  Article 31- Denunciation of other conventions
   1. Upon becoming a Contracting State to this Convention, any State party to the International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules relating to Bills of Lading signed at Brussels on 25 August 1924 (1924 Convention) must notify the Government of Belgium as the depositary of the 1924 Convention of its denunciation of the said Convention with a declaration that the denunciation is to take effect as from the date when this Convention enters into force in respect of that State.
   2. Upon the entry into force of this Convention under paragraph 1 of article 30, the depositary of this Convention must notify the Government of Belgium as the depositary of the 1924 Convention of the date of such entry into force, and of the names of the Contracting States in respect of which the Convention has entered into force.
   3. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of thisArticle apply correspondingly in respect of States parties to the Protocol signed on 23 February 1968 to amend the International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules relating to Bills of Lading signed at Brussels on 25 August 1924.
   4. NotwithstandingArticle 2 of this Convention, for the purposes of paragraph 1 of thisArticle, a Contracting State may, if it deems it desirable, defer the denunciation of the 1924 Convention and of the 1924 Convention as modified by the 1968 Protocol for a maximum period of five years from the entry into force of this Convention. It will then notify the Government of Belgium of its intention. During this transitory period, it must apply to the Contracting States this Convention to the exclusion of any other one.
  
  Article 32 - Revision and amendment
   1. At the request of not less than one-third of the Contracting States to this Convention, the depositary shall convene a conference of the Contracting States for revising or amending it.
   2. Any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession deposited after the entry into force of an amendment to this Convention, is deemed to apply to the Convention as amended.
  
  Article 33 - Revision of the limitation amounts and unit of account or monetary unit
   1. Notwithstanding the provisions ofArticle 32, a conference only for the purpose of altering the amount specified inArticle 6 and paragraph 2 ofArticle 26, or of substituting either or both of the units defined in paragraphs 1 and 3 ofArticle 26 by other units is to be convened by the depositary in accordance with paragraph 2 of this article. An alteration of the amounts shall be made only because of a significant change in their real value.
   2. A revision conference is to be convened by the depositary when not less than one-fourth of the Contracting States so request.
   3. Any decision by the conference must be taken by a two-thirds majority of the participating States. The amendment is communicated by the depositary to all the Contracting States for acceptance and to all the States signatories of the Convention for information.
   4. Any amendment adopted enters into force on the first day of the month following one year after its acceptance by two-thirds of the Contracting States. Acceptance is to be effected by the deposit of a formal instrument to that effect, with the depositary.
   5. After entry into force of an amendment a Contracting State which has accepted the amendment is entitled to apply the Convention as amended in its relations with Contracting States which have not within six months after the adoption of the amendment notified the depositary that they are not bound by the amendment.
   6. Any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession deposited after the entry into force of an amendment to this Convention, is deemed to apply to the Convention as amended.
  
  Article 34 - Denunciation
   1. A Contracting State may denounce this Convention at any time by means of a notification in writing addressed to the depositary.
   2. The denunciation takes effect on the first day of the month following the expiration of one year after the notification is received by the depositary. Where a longer period is specified in the notification, the denunciation takes effect upon the expiration of such longer period after the notification is received by the depositary.
  
  [Post Provisions]
  
  [Post Clauses (If any: Signed; Witnessed; Done; Authentic Texts; & Deposited Clauses)]
  
   Done at Hamburg, this thirty-first day of March one thousand nine hundred and seventy-eight, in a single original, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic.
  
   In witness whereof the undersigned plenipotentiaries, being duly authorised by their respective Governments, have signed the present Convention.
  
   Common understanding adopted by the United Nations Conference on the
  
   Carriage of Goods by Sea (A/CONF.89/13, annex 11)
  
   It is the common understanding that the liability of the carrier under this Convention is based on the principle of presumed fault or neglect. This means that, as a rule, the burden of proof rests on the carrier but, with respect to certain cases, the provisions of the Convention modify this rule.
  
   Resolution adopted by the United Nations Conference on the Carriage of Goods by Sea (A/CON.89/13, annex III)
  
   The United Nations Conference on the Carriage of Goods by Sea,
  
   Noting with appreciation the kind invitation of the Federal Republic of Germany to hold the Conference in Hamburg,
  
   Being aware that the facilities placed at the disposal of the Conference and the generous hospitality bestowed on the participants by the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany and by the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg, have in no small measure contributed to the success of the Conference.
  
   Expresses its gratitude to the Government and people of the Federal Republic of Germany, and
  
   Having adopted the Convention on the Carriage of Goods by Sea on the basis of a draft Convention prepared by the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law at the request of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development,
  
   Expresses its gratitude to the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law and to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development for their outstanding contribution to the simplification and harmonisation of the law of the carriage of goods by sea, and
  
   Decides to designate the Convention adopted by the Conference as the: "UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA, 1978", and
  
   Recommends that the rules embodied therein be known as the "HAMBURG RULES.
  
  Annex 3: 
  Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air
  Signed at Warsaw on 12 October 1929 (Warsaw Convention)
  
  Chapter I - Scope - Definitions
  
  Article 1
   1. This Convention applies to all international carriage of persons, luggage or goods performed by aircraft for reward. It applies equally to gratuitous carriage by aircraft performed by an air transport undertaking.
   2. For the purposes of this Convention the expression "international carriage" means any carriage in which, according to the contract made by the parties, the place of departure and the place of destination, whether or not there be a break in the carriage or a transhipment, are situated either within the territories of two High Contracting Parties, or within the territory of a single High Contracting Party, if there is an agreed stopping place within a territory subject to the sovereignty, suzerainty, mandate or authority of another Power, even though that Power is not a party to this Convention. A carriage without such an agreed stopping place between territories subject to the sovereignty, suzerainty, mandate or authority of the same High Contracting Party is not deemed to be international for the purposes of this Convention.
   3. A carriage to be performed by several successive air carriers is deemed, for the purposes of this Convention, to be one undivided carriage, if it has been regarded by the parties as a single operation, whether it had been agreed upon under the form of a single contract or of a series of contracts, and it does not lose its international character merely because one contract or a series of contracts is to be performed entirely within a territory subject to the sovereignty, suzerainty, mandate or authority of the same High Contracting Party.
  
  Article 2
   1. This Convention applies to carriage performed by the State or by legally constituted public bodies provided it falls within the conditions laid down in Article 1.
   2. This Convention does not apply to carriage performed under the terms of any international postal Convention.
  
  Chapter II - Documents of Carriage
  
  Section I - Passenger Ticket
  
  Article 3
   1. For the carriage of passengers the carrier must deliver a passenger ticket which shall contain the following particulars:-
    (a) the place and date of issue;
    (b) the place of departure and of destination;
    (c) the agreed stopping places, provided that the carrier may reserve the right to alter the stopping places in case of necessity, and that if he exercises that right, the alteration shall not have the effect of depriving the carriage of its international character;
    (d) the name and address of the carrier or carriers;
    (e) a statement that the carriage is subject to the rules relating to liability established by this Convention.
   2. The absence, irregularity or loss of the passenger ticket does not affect the existence or the validity of the contract of carriage, which shall none the less be subject to the rules of this Convention. Nevertheless, if the carrier accepts a passenger without a passenger ticket having been delivered he shall not be entitled to avail himself of those provisions of this Convention which exclude or limit his liability.
  
  Section II - Luggage Ticket
  
  Article 4
  
   1. For the carriage of luggage, other than small personal objects of which the passenger takes charge himself, the carrier must deliver a luggage ticket.
   2. The luggage ticket shall be made out in duplicate, one part for the passenger and the other part for the carrier.
   3. The luggage ticket shall contain the following particulars:-
    (a) the place and date of issue;
    (b) the place of departure and of destination;
    (c) the name and address of the carrier or carriers;
    (d) the number of the passenger ticket;
    (e) a statement that delivery of the luggage will be made to the bearer of the luggage ticket;
    (f) the number and weight of the packages;
    (g) the amount of the value declared in accordance with Article 22(2);
    (h) a statement that the carriage is subject to the rules relating to liability established by this Convention.
   4. The absence, irregularity or loss of the luggage ticket does not affect the existence or the validity of the contract of carriage, which shall none the less be subject to the rules of this Convention. Nevertheless, if the carrier accepts luggage without a luggage ticket having been delivered, or if the luggage ticket does not contain the particulars set out at (d), (f) and (h) above, the carrier shall not be entitled to avail himself of those provisions of the Convention which exclude or limit his liability.
  
  Section III - Air Consignment Note
  
  Article 5
   1. Every carrier of goods has the right to require the consignor to make out and hand over to him a document called an "air consignment note"; every consignor has the right to require the carrier to accept this document.
   2. The absence, irregularity or loss of this document does not affect the existence or the validity of the contract of carriage which shall, subject to the provisions of Article 9, be none the less governed by the rules of this Convention.
  
  Article 6
   1. The air consignment note shall be made out by the consignor in three original parts and be handed over with the goods.
   2. The first part shall be marked "for the carrier," and shall be signed by the consignor. The second part shall be marked "for the consignee"; it shall be signed by the consignor and by the carrier and shall accompany the goods. The third part shall be signed by the carrier and handed by him to the consignor after the goods have been accepted.
   3. The carrier shall sign on acceptance of the goods.
   4. The signature of the carrier may be stamped; that of the consignor may be printed or stamped.
   5. If, at the request of the consignor, the carrier makes out the air consignment note, he shall be deemed, subject to proof to the contrary, to have done so on behalf of the consignor.  
  
  Article 7
   The carrier of goods has the right to require the consignor to make out separate consignment notes when there is more than one package.
  
  Article 8
   The air consignment note shall contain the following particulars:-
    (a) the place and date of its execution;
    (b) the place of departure and of destination;
    (c) the agreed stopping places, provided that the carrier may reserve the right to alter the stopping places in case of necessity, and that if he exercises that right the alteration shall not have the effect of depriving the carriage of its international character;
    (d) the name and address of the consignor;
    (e) the name and address of the first carrier;
    (f) the name and address of the consignee, if the case so requires;
    (g) the nature of the goods;
    (h) the number of the packages, the method of packing and the particular marks or numbers upon them;
    (i) the weight, the quantity and the volume or dimensions of the goods;
    (j) the apparent condition of the goods and of the packing;
    (k) the freight, if it has been agreed upon, the date and place of payment, and the person who is to pay it;
    (l) if the goods are sent for payment on delivery, the price of the goods, and, if the case so requires, the amount of the expenses incurred;
    (m) the amount of the value declared in accordance with Article 22 (2);
    (n) the number of parts of the air consignment note;
    (o) the documents handed to the carrier to accompany the air consignment note;
    (p) the time fixed for the completion of the carriage and a brief note of the route to be followed, if these matters have been agreed upon;
    (q) a statement that the carriage is subject to the rules relating to liability established by this Convention.
    
  Article 9
   If the carrier accepts goods without an air consignment note having been made out, or if the air consignment note does not contain all the particulars set out in Article 8(a) to (i) inclusive and (q), the carrier shall not be entitled to avail himself of the provisions of this Convention which exclude or limit his liability.
  
  Article 10
   1. The consignor is responsible for the correctness of the particulars and statements relating to the goods which he inserts in the air consignment note.
   2. The consignor will be liable for all damage suffered by the carrier or any other person by reason of the irregularity, incorrectness or incompleteness of the said particulars and statements.
  
  Article 11
   1. The air consignment note is prima facie evidence of the conclusion of the contract, of the receipt of the goods and of the conditions of carriage.
   2. The statements in the air consignment note relating to the weight, dimensions and packing of the goods, as well as those relating to the number of packages, are prima facie evidence of the facts stated; those relating to the quantity, volume and condition of the goods do not constitute evidence against the carrier except so far as they both have been, and are stated in the air consignment note to have been, checked by him in the presence of the consignor, or relate to the apparent condition of the goods.
  
  Article 12
   1. Subject to his liability to carry out all his obligations under the contract of carriage, the consignor has the right to dispose of the goods by withdrawing them at the aerodrome of departure or destination, or by stopping them in the course of the journey on any landing, or by calling for them to be delivered at the place of destination or in the course of the journey to a person other than the consignee named in the air consignment note, or by requiring them to be returned to the aerodrome of departure. He must not exercise this right of disposition in such a way as to prejudice the carrier or other consignors and he must repay any expenses occasioned by the exercise of this right.
   2. If it is impossible to carry out the orders of the consignor the carrier must so inform him forthwith.
   3. If the carrier obeys the orders of the consignor for the disposition of the goods without requiring the production of the part of the air consignment note delivered to the latter, he will be liable, without prejudice to his right of recovery from the consignor, for any damage which may be caused thereby to any person who is lawfully in possession of that part of the air consignment note.
   4. The right conferred on the consignor ceases at the moment when that of the consignee begins in accordance with Article 13. Nevertheless, if the consignee declines to accept the consignment note or the goods, or if he cannot be communicated with, the consignor resumes his right of disposition.
  
  Article 13
   1. Except in the circumstances set out in the preceding Article, the consignee is entitled, on arrival of the goods at the place of destination, to require the carrier to hand over to him the air consignment note and to deliver the goods to him, on payment of the charges due and on complying with the conditions of carriage set out in the air consignment note.
   2. Unless it is otherwise agreed, it is the duty of the carrier to give notice to the consignee as soon as the goods arrive.
   3. If the carrier admits the loss of the goods, or if the goods have not arrived at the expiration of seven days after the date on which they ought to have arrived, the consignee is entitled to put into force against the carrier the rights which flow from the contract of carriage.  
  
  Article 14
   The consignor and the consignee can respectively enforce all the rights given them by Articles 12 and 13, each in his own name, whether he is acting in his own interest or in the interest of another, provided that he carries out the obligations imposed by the contract.
  
  Article 15
   1. Articles 12, 13 and 14 do not affect either the relations of the consignor or the consignee with each other or the mutual relations of third parties whose rights are derived either from the consignor or from the consignee.
   2. The provisions of Articles 12, 13 and 14 can only be varied by express provision in the air consignment note.
  
  Article 16
   1. The consignor must furnish such information and attach to the air consignment note such documents as are necessary to meet the formalities of customs, octroi or police before the goods can be delivered to the consignee. The consignor is liable to the carrier for any damage occasioned by the absence, insufficiency or irregularity of any such information or documents, unless the damage is due to the fault of the carrier or his agents.
   2. The carrier is under no obligation to enquire into the correctness or sufficiency of such information or documents.
  
  Chapter III - Liability of the Carrier  
  
  Article 17
   The carrier is liable for damage sustained in the event of the death or wounding of a passenger or any other bodily injury suffered by a passenger, if the accident which caused the damage so sustained took place on board the aircraft or in the course of any of the operations of embarking or disembarking.
  
  Article 18
   1. The carrier is liable for damage sustained in the event of the destruction or loss of, or of damage to, any registered luggage or any goods, if the occurrence which caused the damage so sustained took place during the carriage by air.
   2. The carriage by air within the meaning of the preceding paragraph comprises the period during which the luggage or goods are in charge of the carrier, whether in an aerodrome or on board an aircraft, or, in the case of a landing outside an aerodrome, in any place whatsoever.
   3. The period of the carriage by air does not extend to any carriage by land, by sea or by river performed outside an aerodrome. If, however, such a carriage takes place in the performance of a contract for carriage by air, for the purpose of loading, delivery or transshipment, any damage is presumed, subject to proof to the contrary, to have been the result of an event which took place during the carriage by air.
  
  Article 19
   The carrier is liable for damage occasioned by delay in the carriage by air of passengers, luggage or goods.
  
  Article 20
   1. The carrier is not liable if he proves that he and his agents have taken all necessary measures to avoid the damage or that it was impossible for him or them to take such measures.
   2. In the carriage of goods and luggage the carrier is not liable if he proves that the damage was occasioned by negligent pilotage or negligence in the handling of the aircraft or in navigation and that, in all other respects, he and his agents have taken all necessary measures to avoid the damage.
  
  Article 21
   If the carrier proves that the damage was caused by or contributed to by the negligence of the injured person the Court may, in accordance with the provisions of its own law, exonerate the carrier wholly or partly from his liability.
  
  Article 22
   1. In the carriage of passengers the liability of the carrier for each passenger is limited to the sum of 125,000 francs. Where, in accordance with the law of the Court seised of the case, damages may be awarded in the form of periodical payments, the equivalent capital value of the said payments shall not exceed 125,000 francs. Nevertheless, by special contract, the carrier and the passenger may agree to a higher limit of liability.
   2. In the carriage of registered luggage and of goods, the liability of the carrier is limited to a sum of 250 francs per kilogram, unless the consignor has made, at the time when the package was handed over to the carrier, a special declaration of the value at delivery and has paid a supplementary sum if the case so requires. In that case the carrier will be liable to pay a sum not exceeding the declared sum, unless he proves that that sum is greater than the actual value to the consignor at delivery.
   3. As regards objects of which the passenger takes charge himself the liability of the carrier is limited to 5,000 francs per passenger.
   4. The sums mentioned above shall be deemed to refer to the French franc consisting of 65 ? milligrams gold of millesimal fineness 900. These sums may be converted into any national currency in round figures.
  
  Article 23
   Any provision tending to relieve the carrier of liability or to fix a lower limit than that which is laid down in this Convention shall be null and void, but the nullity of any such provision does not involve the nullity of the whole contract, which shall remain subject to the provisions of this Convention.
  
  Article 24
   1. In the cases covered by Articles 18 and 19 any action for damages, however founded, can only be brought subject to the conditions and limits set out in this Convention.
   2. In the cases covered by Article 17 the provisions of the preceding paragraph also apply, without prejudice to the questions as to who are the persons who have the right to bring suit and what are their respective rights.
  
  Article 25
   1. The carrier shall not be entitled to avail himself of the provisions of this Convention which exclude or limit his liability, if the damage is caused by his wilful misconduct or by such default on his part as, in accordance with the law of the Court seised of the case, is considered to be equivalent to wilful misconduct.
   2. Similarly the carrier shall not be entitled to avail himself of the said provisions, if the damage is caused as aforesaid by any agent of the carrier acting within the scope of his employment.
  
  Article 26
   1. Receipt by the person entitled to delivery of luggage or goods without complaint is prima facie evidence that the same have been delivered in good condition and in accordance with the document of carriage.
   2. In the case of damage, the person entitled to delivery must complain to the carrier forthwith after the discovery of the damage, and, at the latest, within three days from the date of receipt in the case of luggage and seven days from the date of receipt in the case of goods. In the case of delay the complaint must be made at the latest within fourteen days from the date on which the luggage or goods have been placed at his disposal.
   3. Every complaint must be made in writing upon the document of carriage or by separate notice in writing despatched within the times aforesaid.
   4. Failing complaint within the times aforesaid, no action shall lie against the carrier, save in the case of fraud on his part.
  
  Article 27
   In the case of the death of the person liable, an action for damages lies in accordance with the terms of this Convention against those legally representing his estate.
  
  Article 28
   1. An action for damages must be brought, at the option of the plaintiff, in the territory of one of the High Contracting Parties, either before the Court having jurisdiction where the carrier is ordinarily resident, or has his principal place of business, or has an establishment by which the contract has been made or before the Court having jurisdiction at the place of destination.
   2. Questions of procedure shall be governed by the law of the Court seised of the case.
  
  Article 29
   1. The right to damages shall be extinguished if an action is not brought within two years, reckoned from the date of arrival at the destination, or from the date on which the aircraft ought to have arrived, or from the date on which the carriage stopped.
   2. The method of calculating the period of limitation shall be determined by the law of the Court seised of the case.
  
  Article 30
   1. In the case of carriage to be performed by various successive carriers and falling within the definition set out in the third paragraph of Article 1, each carrier who accepts passengers, luggage or goods is subjected to the rules set out in this Convention, and is deemed to be one of the contracting parties to the contract of carriage in so far as the contract deals with that part of the carriage which is performed under his supervision.
   2. In the case of carriage of this nature, the passenger or his representative can take action only against the carrier who performed the carriage during which the accident or the delay occurred, save in the case where, by express agreement, the first carrier has assumed liability for the whole journey.
   3. As regards luggage or goods, the passenger or consignor will have a right of action against the first carrier, and the passenger or consignee who is entitled to delivery will have a right of action against the last carrier, and further, each may take action against the carrier who performed the carriage during which the destruction, loss, damage or delay took place. These carriers will be jointly and severally liable to the passenger or to the consignor or consignee.

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  Chapter IV - Provisions Relating to Combined Carriage
  
  Article 31
  
   1. In the case of combined carriage performed partly by air and partly by any other mode of carriage, the provisions of this Convention apply only to the carriage by air, provided that the carriage by air falls within the terms of Article 1.
   2. Nothing in this Convention shall prevent the parties in the case of combined carriage from inserting in the document of air carriage conditions relating to other modes of carriage, provided that the provisions of this Convention are observed as regards the carriage by air.
  
  Chapter V - General and Final Provisions
  
  Article 32
   Any clause contained in the contract and all special agreements entered into before the damage occurred by which the parties purport to infringe the rules laid down by this Convention, whether by deciding the law to be applied, or by altering the rules as to jurisdiction, shall be null and void. Nevertheless for the carriage of goods arbitration clauses are allowed, subject to this Convention, if the arbitration is to take place within one of the jurisdictions referred to in the first paragraph of Article 28.
  
  Article 33
   Nothing contained in this Convention shall prevent the carrier either from refusing to enter into any contract of carriage, or from making regulations which do not conflict with the provisions of this Convention.
  
  Article 34
   This Convention does not apply to international carriage by air performed by way of experimental trial by air navigation undertakings with the view to the establishment of a regular line of air navigation, nor does it apply to carriage performed in extraordinary circumstances outside the normal scope of an air carrier's business.
  
  Article 35
   The expression "days" when used in this Convention means current days not working days.
  
  Article 36
   The Convention is drawn up in French in a single copy which shall remain deposited in the archives of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Poland and of which one duly certified copy shall be sent by the Polish Government to the Government of each of the High Contracting Parties.
  
  Article 37
   1. This Convention shall be ratified. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited in the archives of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Poland, which will notify the deposit to the Government of each of the High Contracting Parties.
   2. As soon as this Convention shall have been ratified by five of the High Contracting Parties it shall come into force as between them on the ninetieth day after the deposit of the fifth ratification. Thereafter it shall come into force between the High Contracting Parties who shall have ratified and the High Contracting Party who deposits his instrument of ratification on the ninetieth day after the deposit.
   3. It shall be the duty of the Government of the Republic of Poland to notify to the Government of each of the High Contracting Parties the date on which this Convention comes into force as well as the date of the deposit of each ratification.
  
  Article 38
   1. This Convention shall, after it has come into force, remain open for accession by any State.
   2. The accession shall be effected by a notification addressed to the Government of the Republic of Poland, which will inform the Government of each of the High Contracting Parties thereof.
   3. The accession shall take effect as from the ninetieth day after the notification made to the Government of the Republic of Poland.
  
  Article 39
   1. Any one of the High Contracting Parties may denounce this Convention by a notification addressed to the Government of the Republic of Poland, which will at once inform the Government of each of the High Contracting Parties.
   2. Denunciation shall take effect six months after the notification of denunciation, and shall operate only as regards the Party who shall have proceeded to denunciation.  
  
  Article 40
   1. Any High Contracting Party may, at the time of signature or of deposit of ratification or of accession declare that the acceptance which he gives to this Convention does not apply to all or any of his colonies, protectorates, territories under mandate, or any other territory subject to his sovereignty or his authority, or any territory under his suzerainty.
   2. Accordingly any High Contracting Party may subsequently accede separately in the name of all or any of his colonies, protectorates, territories under mandate or any other territory subject to his sovereignty or to his authority or any territory under his suzerainty which has been thus excluded by his original declaration.
   3. Any High Contracting Party may denounce this Convention, in accordance with its provisions, separately or for all or any of his colonies, protectorates, territories under mandate or any other territory subject to his sovereignty or to his authority, or any other territory under his suzerainty.
  
  Article 41
   Any High Contracting Party shall be entitled not earlier than two years after the coming into force of this Convention to call for the assembling of a new international Conference in order to consider any improvements which may be made in this Convention. To this end he will communicate with the Government of the French Republic which will take the necessary measures to make preparations for such Conference.
   This Convention done at Warsaw on the 12th October, 1929, shall remain open for signature until the 31st January, 1930.
  
  Additional Protocol
  
  Additional Protocol (With reference to Article 2)
  
  The High Contracting Parties reserve to themselves the right to declare at the time of ratification or of accession that the first paragraph of Article 2 of this Convention shall not apply to international carriage by air performed directly by the State, its colonies, protectorates or mandated territories or by any other territory under its sovereignty, suzerainty or authority."
  
  Annex 4: 
  
  Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules for International Carriage by Air (Montreal, 28 May 1999)
  
  THE STATES PARTIES TO THIS CONVENTION
  
  RECOGNIZING the significant contribution of the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules relating to International Carriage by Air signed in Warsaw on 12 October 1929, hereinafter referred to as the "Warsaw Convention", and other related instruments to the harmonization of private international air law;
  
  RECOGNIZING the need to modernize and consolidate the Warsaw Convention and related instruments;
  
  RECOGNIZING the importance of ensuring protection of the interests of consumers in international carriage by air and the need for equitable compensation based on the principle of restitution;
  
  REAFFIRMING the desirability of an orderly development of international air transport operations and the smooth flow of passengers, baggage and cargo in accordance with the principles and objectives of the Convention on International Civil Aviation, done at Chicago on 7 December 1944;
  
  CONVINCED that collective State action for further harmonization and codification of certain rules governing international carriage by air through a new Convention is the most adequate means of achieving an equitable balance of interests;
  
  HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS:  
  
  Chapter 1 - General Provisions
  
  Article 1 - Scope of application
   1. This Convention applies to all international carriage of persons, baggage or cargo performed by aircraft for reward. It applies equally to gratuitous carriage by aircraft performed by an air transport undertaking.
   2. For the purposes of this Convention, the expression "international carriage" means any carriage in which, according to the agreement between the parties, the place of departure and the place of destination, whether or not there be a break in the carriage or a transhipment, are situated either within the territories of two States Parties, or within the territory of a single State Party if there is an agreed stopping place within the territory of another State, even if that State is not a State Party. Carriage between two points within the territory of a single State Party without an agreed stopping place within the territory of another State is not international carriage for the purposes of this Convention.
   3. Carriage to be performed by several successive carriers is deemed, for the purposes of this Convention, to be one undivided carriage if it has been regarded by the parties as a single operation, whether it had been agreed upon under the form of a single contract or of a series of contracts, and it does not lose its international character merely because one contract or a series of contracts is to be performed entirely within the territory of the same State.
   4. This Convention applies also to carriage as set out in Chapter V, subject to the terms contained therein.
  
  Article 2 - Carriage performed by State and carriage of postal items
   1. This Convention applies to carriage performed by the State or by legally constituted public bodies provided it falls within the conditions laid down in Article 1.
   2. In the carriage of postal items, the carrier shall be liable only to the relevant postal administration in accordance with the rules applicable to the relationship between the carriers and the postal administrations.
   3. Except as provided in paragraph 2 of this Article, the provisions of this Convention shall not apply to the carriage of postal items.
  
  Chapter II - Documentation and Duties of the Parties Relating to the Carriage of Passengers, Baggage and Cargo
  
  Article 3 - Passengers and baggage
   1. In respect of carriage of passengers, an individual or collective document of carriage shall be delivered containing:
    (a) an indication of the places of departure and destination;
    (b) if the places of departure and destination are within the territory of a single State Party, one or more agreed stopping places being within the territory of another State, an indication of at least one such stopping place.
   2. Any other means which preserves the information indicated in paragraph 1 may be substituted for the delivery of the document referred to in that paragraph. If any such other means is used, the carrier shall offer to deliver to the passenger a written statement of the information so preserved.
   3. The carrier shall deliver to the passenger a baggage identification tag for each piece of checked baggage.
   4. The passenger shall be given written notice to the effect that where this Convention is applicable it governs and may limit the liability of carriers in respect of death or injury and for destruction or loss of, or damage to, baggage, and for delay.
   5. Non-compliance with the provisions of the foregoing paragraphs shall not affect the existence or the validity of the contract of carriage, which shall, nonetheless, be subject to the rules of this Convention including those relating to limitation of liability.
  
  Article 4 - Cargo
   1. In respect of the carriage of cargo, an air waybill shall be delivered.
   2. Any other means which preserves a record of the carriage to be performed may be substituted for the delivery of an air waybill. If such other means are used, the carrier shall, if so requested by the consignor, deliver to the consignor a cargo receipt permitting identification of the consignment and access to the information contained in the record preserved by such other means.
  
  Article 5 - Contents of air waybill or cargo receipt
   The air waybill or the cargo receipt shall include:
    (a) an indication of the places of departure and destination;
    (b) if the places of departure and destination are within the territory of a single State Party, one or more agreed stopping places being within the territory of another State, an indication of at least one such stopping place; and
    (c) an indication of the weight of the consignment.
  
  Article 6 - Document relating to the nature of the cargo
   The consignor may be required, if necessary, to meet the formalities of customs, police and similar public authorities to deliver a document indicating the nature of the cargo. This provision creates for the carrier no duty, obligation or liability resulting therefrom.
  
  Article 7 - Description of air waybill
   1. The air waybill shall be made out by the consignor in three original parts.
   2. The first part shall be marked "for the carrier"; it shall be signed by the consignor. The second part shall be marked "for the consignee"; it shall be signed by the consignor and by the carrier. The third part shall be signed by the carrier who shall hand it to the consignor after the cargo has been accepted.
   3. The signature of the carrier and that of the consignor may be printed or stamped.
   4. If, at the request of the consignor, the carrier makes out the air waybill, the carrier shall be deemed, subject to proof to the contrary, to have done so on behalf of the consignor.
  
  Article 8 - Documentation for multiple packages
   When there is more than one package:
    (a) the carrier of cargo has the right to require the consignor to make out separate air waybills;
    (b) the consignor has the right to require the carrier to deliver separate cargo receipts when the other means referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 4 are used.
  
  Article 9 - Non-compliance with documentary requirements
   Non-compliance with the provisions of Articles 4 to 8 shall not affect the existence or the validity of the contract of carriage, which shall, nonetheless, be subject to the rules of this Convention including those relating to limitation of liability.
  
  Article 10 - Responsibility for particulars of documentation
   1. The consignor is responsible for the correctness of the particulars and statements relating to the cargo inserted by it or on its behalf in the air waybill or furnished by it or on its behalf to the carrier for insertion in the cargo receipt or for insertion in the record preserved by the other means referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 4. The foregoing shall also apply where the person acting on behalf of the consignor is also the agent of the carrier.
   2. The consignor shall indemnify the carrier against all damage suffered by it, or by any other person to whom the carrier is liable, by reason of the irregularity, incorrectness or incompleteness of the particulars and statements furnished by the consignor or on its behalf.
   3. Subject to the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article, the carrier shall indemnify the consignor against all damage suffered by it, or by any other person to whom the consignor is liable, by reason of the irregularity, incorrectness or incompleteness of the particulars and statements inserted by the carrier or on its behalf in the cargo receipt or in the record preserved by the other means referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 4.
  
  Article 11 - Evidentiary value of documentation
   1. The air waybill or the cargo receipt is prima facie evidence of the conclusion of the contract, of the acceptance of the cargo and of the conditions of carriage mentioned therein.
   2. Any statements in the air waybill or the cargo receipt relating to the weight, dimensions and packing of the cargo, as well as those relating to the number of packages, are prima facie evidence of the facts stated; those relating to the quantity, volume and condition of the cargo do not constitute evidence against the carrier except so far as they both have been, and are stated in the air waybill or the cargo receipt to have been, checked by it in the presence of the consignor, or relate to the apparent condition of the cargo.
  
  Article 12 - Right of disposition of cargo
   1. Subject to its liability to carry out all its obligations under the contract of carriage, the consignor has the right to dispose of the cargo by withdrawing it at the airport of departure or destination, or by stopping it in the course of the journey on any landing, or by calling for it to be delivered at the place of destination or in the course of the journey to a person other than the consignee originally designated, or by requiring it to be returned to the airport of departure. The consignor must not exercise this right of disposition in such a way as to prejudice the carrier or other consignors and must reimburse any expenses occasioned by the exercise of this right.
   2. If it is impossible to carry out the instructions of the consignor, the carrier must so inform the consignor forthwith.
   3. If the carrier carries out the instructions of the consignor for the disposition of the cargo without requiring the production of the part of the air waybill or the cargo receipt delivered to the latter, the carrier will be liable, without prejudice to its right of recovery from the consignor, for any damage which may be caused thereby to any person who is lawfully in possession of that part of the air waybill or the cargo receipt.
   4. The right conferred on the consignor ceases at the moment when that of the consignee begins in accordance with Article 13. Nevertheless, if the consignee declines to accept the cargo, or cannot be communicated with, the consignor resumes its right of disposition.
  
  Article 13 - Delivery of the cargo
   1. Except when the consignor has exercised its right under Article 12, the consignee is entitled, on arrival of the cargo at the place of destination, to require the carrier to deliver the cargo to it, on payment of the charges due and on complying with the conditions of carriage.
   2. Unless it is otherwise agreed, it is the duty of the carrier to give notice to the consignee as soon as the cargo arrives.
   3. If the carrier admits the loss of the cargo, or if the cargo has not arrived at the expiration of seven days after the date on which it ought to have arrived, the consignee is entitled to enforce against the carrier the rights which flow from the contract of carriage.
  
  Article 14 - Enforcement of the rights of consignor and consignee
   The consignor and the consignee can respectively enforce all the rights given to them by Articles 12 and 13, each in its own name, whether it is acting in its own interest or in the interest of another, provided that it carries out the obligations imposed by the contract of carriage.
  
  Article 15 - Relations of consignor and consignee or mutual relations of third parties
   1. Articles 12, 13 and 14 do not affect either the relations of the consignor and the consignee with each other or the mutual relations of third parties whose rights are derived either from the consignor or from the consignee.
   2. The provisions of Articles 12, 13 and 14 can only be varied by express provision in the air waybill or the cargo receipt.
  
  Article 16 - Formalities of customs, police or other public authorities
   1. The consignor must furnish such information and such documents as are necessary to meet the formalities of customs, police and any other public authorities before the cargo can be delivered to the consignee. The consignor is liable to the carrier for any damage occasioned by the absence, insufficiency or irregularity of any such information or documents, unless the damage is due to the fault of the carrier, its servants or agents.
   2. The carrier is under no obligation to enquire into the correctness or sufficiency of such information or documents.

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  Chapter III - Liability of the Carrier and Extent of Compensation for Damage
  
  Article 17 - Death and injury of passengers - damage to baggage
   1. The carrier is liable for damage sustained in case of death or bodily injury of a passenger upon condition only that the accident which caused the death or injury took place on board the aircraft or in the course of any of the operations of embarking or disembarking.
   2. The carrier liable for damage sustained in case of destruction or loss of, or of damage to, checked baggage upon condition only that the event which caused the destruction, loss or damage took place on board the aircraft or during any period within which the checked baggage was in the charge of the carrier. However, the carrier is not liable if and to the extent that the damage resulted from the inherent defect, quality or vice of the baggage. In the case of unchecked baggage, including personal items, the carrier is liable if the damage resulted from its fault or that of its servants or agents.
   3. If the carrier admits the loss of the checked baggage, or if the checked baggage has not arrived at the expiration of twenty-one days after the date on which it ought to have arrived, the passenger is entitled to enforce against the carrier the rights which flow from the contract of carriage.
   4. Unless otherwise specified, in this Convention the term "baggage" means both checked baggage and unchecked baggage.
  
  Article 18 - Damage to cargo
   1. The carrier is liable for damage sustained in the event of the destruction or loss of or damage to, cargo upon condition only that the event which caused the damage so sustained took place during the carriage by air.
   2. However, the carrier is not liable if and to the extent it proves that the destruction, or loss of, or damage to, the cargo resulted from one or more of the following:
    (a) inherent defect, quality or vice of that cargo;
    (b) defective packing of that cargo performed by a person other than the carrier or its servants or agents;
    (c) an act of war or an armed conflict;
    (d) an act of public authority carried out in connection with the entry, exit or transit of the cargo.
   3. The carriage by air within the meaning of paragraph 1 of this Article comprises the period during which the cargo is in the charge of the carrier.
   4. The period of the carriage by air does not extend to any carriage by land, by sea or by inland waterway performed outside an airport. If, however, such carriage takes place in the performance of a contract for carriage by air, for the purpose of loading, delivery or transhipment, any damage is presumed, subject to proof to the contrary, to have been the result of an event which took place during the carriage by air. If a carrier, without the consent of the consignor, substitutes carriage by another mode of transport for the whole or part of a carriage intended by the agreement between the parties to be carriage by air, such carriage by another mode of transport is deemed to be within the period of carriage by air.
  
  Article 19 - Delay
   The carrier is liable for damage occasioned by delay in the carriage by air of passengers, baggage or cargo. Nevertheless, the carrier shall not be liable for damage occasioned by delay if it proves that it and its servants and agents took all measures that could reasonably be required to avoid the damage or that it was impossible for it or them to take such measures.
  
  Article 20 - Exoneration
   If the carrier proves that the damage was caused or contributed to by the negligence or other wrongful act or omission of the person claiming compensation, or the person from whom he or she derives his or her rights, the carrier shall be wholly or partly exonerated from its liability to the claimant to the extent that such negligence or wrongful act or omission caused or contributed to the damage. When by reason of death or injury of a passenger compensation is claimed by a person other than the passenger, the carrier shall likewise be wholly or partly exonerated from its liability to the extent that it proves that the damage was caused or contributed to by the negligence or other wrongful act or omission of that passenger. This Article applies to all the liability provisions in this Convention, including paragraph 1 of Article 21.
  
  Article 21 - Compensation in case of death or injury of passengers
   1. For damages arising under paragraph 1 of Article 17 not exceeding 100,000 Special Drawing Rights for each passenger, the carrier shall not be able to exclude or limit its liability.
   2. The carrier shall not be liable for damages arising under paragraph 1 of Article 17 to the extent that they exceed for each passenger 100,000 Special Drawing Rights if the carrier proves that:
    (a) such damage was not due to the negligence or other wrongful act or omission of the carrier or its servants or agents; or
    (b) such damage was solely due to the negligence or other wrongful act or omission of a third party.
  
  Article 22 - Limits of liability in relation to delay, baggage and cargo
   1. In the case of damage caused by delay as specified in Article 19 in the carriage of persons, the liability of the carrier for each passenger is limited to 4,150 Special Drawing Rights.
   2. In the carriage of baggage, the liability of the carrier in the case of destruction, loss, damage or delay is limited to 1,000 Special Drawing Rights for each passenger unless the passenger has made, at the time when the checked baggage was handed over to the carrier, a special declaration of interest in delivery at destination and has paid a supplementary sum if the case so requires. In that case the carrier will be liable to pay a sum not exceeding the declared sum, unless it proves that the sum is greater than the passenger's actual interest in delivery at destination.
   3. In the carriage of cargo, the liability of the carrier in the case of destruction, loss, damage or delay is limited to a sum of 17 Special Drawing Rights per kilogram, unless the consignor has made, at the time when the package was handed over to the carrier, a special declaration of interest in delivery at destination and has paid a supplementary sum if the case so requires. In that case the carrier will be liable to pay a sum not exceeding the declared sum, unless it proves that the sum is greater than the consignor's actual interest in delivery at destination.
   4. In the case of destruction, loss, damage or delay of part of the cargo, or of any object contained therein, the weight to be taken into consideration in determining the amount to which the carrier's liability is limited shall be only the total weight of the package or packages concerned. Nevertheless, when the destruction, loss, damage or delay of a part of the cargo, or of an object contained therein, affects the value of other packages covered by the same air waybill, or the same receipt or, if they were not issued, by the same record preserved by the other means referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 4, the total weight of such package or packages shall also be taken into consideration in determining the limit of liability.
   5. The foregoing provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article shall not apply if it is proved that the damage resulted from an act or omission of the carrier, its servants or agents, done with intent to cause damage or recklessly and with knowledge that damage would probably result; provided that, in the case of such act or omission of a servant or agent, it is also proved that such servant or agent was acting within the scope of its employment.
   6. The limits prescribed in Article 21 and in this Article shall not prevent the court from awarding, in accordance with its own law, in addition, the whole or part of the court costs and of the other expenses of the litigation incurred by the plaintiff, including interest. The foregoing provision shall not apply if the amount of the damages awarded, excluding court costs and other expenses of the litigation, does not exceed the sum which the carrier has offered in writing to the plaintiff within a period of six months from the date of the occurrence causing the damage, or before the commencement of the action, if that is later.
  
  Article 23 - Conversion of monetary units
   1. The sums mentioned in terms of Special Drawing Right in this Convention shall be deemed to refer to the Special Drawing Right as defined by the International Monetary Fund. Conversion of the sums into national currencies shall, in case of judicial proceedings, be made according to the value of such currencies in terms of the Special Drawing Right at the date of the judgement. The value of a national currency, in terms of the Special Drawing Right, of a State Party which is a Member of the International Monetary Fund, shall be calculated in accordance with the method of valuation applied by the International Monetary Fund, in effect at the date of the judgement, for its operations and transactions. The value of a national currency, in terms of the Special Drawing Right, of a State Party which is not a Member of the International Monetary Fund, shall be calculated in a manner determined by that State.
   2. Nevertheless, those States which are not Members of the International Monetary Fund and whose law does not permit the application of the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article may, at the time of ratification or accession or at any time thereafter, declare that the limit of liability of the carrier prescribed in Article 21 is fixed at a sum of 1,500,000 monetary units per passenger in judicial proceedings in their territories; 62,500 monetary units per passenger with respect to paragraph 1 of Article 22; 15,000 monetary units per passenger with respect to paragraph 2 of Article 22; and 250 monetary units per kilogram with respect to paragraph 3 of Article 22. This monetary unit corresponds to sixty-five and a half milligrams of gold of millesimal fineness nine hundred. These sums may be converted into the national currency concerned in round figures. The conversion of these sums into national currency shall be made according to the law of the State concerned.
   3. The calculation mentioned in the last sentence of paragraph I of this Article and the conversion method mentioned in paragraph 2 of this Article shall be made in such manner as to express in the national currency of the State Party as far as possible the same real value for the amounts in Articles 21 and 22 as would result from the application of the first three sentences of paragraph 1 of this Article. States Parties shall communicate to the depositary the manner of calculation pursuant to paragraph 1 of this Article, or the result of the conversion in paragraph 2 of this Article as the case may be, when depositing an instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval of or accession to this Convention and whenever there is a change in either.
  
  Article 24 - Review of limits
   1. Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 25 of this Convention and subject to paragraph 2 below, the limits of liability prescribed in Articles 21, 22 and 23 shall be reviewed by the Depositary at five-year intervals, the first such review to take place at the end of the fifth year following the date of entry into force of this Convention, or if the Convention does not enter into force within five years of the date it is first open for signature, within the first year of its entry into force, by reference to an inflation factor which corresponds to the accumulated rate of inflation since the previous revision or in the first instance since the date of entry into force of the Convention. The measure of the rate of inflation to be used in determining the inflation factor shall be the weighted average of the annual rates of increase or decrease in the Consumer Price Indices of the States whose currencies comprise the Special Drawing Right mentioned in paragraph 1 of Article 23.
   2. If the review referred to in the preceding paragraph concludes that the inflation factor has exceeded 10 percent, the Depositary shall notify States Parties of a revision of the limits of liability. Any such revision shall become effective six months after its notification to the States Parties. If within three months after its notification to the States Parties a majority of the States Parties register their disapproval, the revision shall not become effective and the Depositary shall refer the matter to a meeting of the States Parties. The Depositary shall immediately notify all States Parties of the coming into force of any revision.
   3. Notwithstanding paragraph 1 of this Article, the procedure referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article shall be applied at any time provided that one-third of the States Parties express a desire to that effect and upon condition that the inflation factor referred to in paragraph 1 has exceeded 30 percent since the previous revision or since the date of entry into force of this Convention if there has been no previous revision. Subsequent reviews using the procedure described in paragraph 1 of this Article will take place at five-year intervals starting at the end of the fifth year following the date of the reviews under the present paragraph.
  
  Article 25 - Stipulation on limits
   A carrier may stipulate that the contract of carriage shall be subject to higher limits of liability than those provided for in this Convention or to no limits of liability whatsoever.
  
  Article 26 - Invalidity of contractual provisions
   Any provision tending to relieve the carrier of liability or to fix a lower limit than that which is laid down in this Convention shall be null and void, but the nullity of any such provision does not involve the nullity of the whole contract, which shall remain subject to the provisions of this Convention.
  
  Article 27 - Freedom to contract
   Nothing contained in this Convention shall prevent the carrier from refusing to enter into any contract of carriage, from waiving any defences available under the Convention, or from laying down conditions which do not conflict with the provisions of this Convention.
  
  Article 28 - Advance payments
   In the case of aircraft accidents resulting in death or injury of passengers, the carrier shall, if required by its national law, make advance payments without delay to a natural person or persons who are entitled to claim compensation in order to meet the immediate economic needs of such persons. Such advance payments shall not constitute a recognition of liability and may be offset against any amounts subsequently paid as damages by the carrier.
  
  Article 29 - Basis of claims
   In the carriage of passengers, baggage and cargo, any action for damages, however founded, whether under this Convention or in contract or in tort or otherwise, can only be brought subject to the conditions and such limits of liability as are set out in this Convention without prejudice to the question as to who are the persons who have the right to bring suit and what are their respective rights. In any such action, punitive, exemplary or any other non-compensatory damages shall not be recoverable.
  
  Article 30 - Servants, agents - aggregation of claims
   1. If an action is brought against a servant or agent of the carrier arising out of damage to which the Convention relates, such servant or agent, if they prove that they acted within the scope of their employment, shall be entitled to avail themselves of the conditions and limits of liability which the carrier itself is entitled to invoke under this Convention.
   2. The aggregate of the amounts recoverable from the carrier, its servants and agents, in that case, shall not exceed the said limits.
   3. Save in respect of the carriage of cargo, the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article shall not apply if it is proved that the damage resulted from an act or omission of the servant or agent done with intent to cause damage or recklessly and with knowledge that damage would probably result.
  
  Article 31 - Timely notice of complaints
   1. Receipt by the person entitled to delivery of checked baggage or cargo without complaint is prima facie evidence that the same has been delivered in good condition and in accordance with the document of carriage or with the record preserved by the other means referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 3 and paragraph 2 of Article 4.
   2. In the case of damage, the person entitled to delivery must complain to the carrier forthwith after the discovery of the damage, and, at the latest, within seven days from the date of receipt in the case of checked baggage and fourteen days from the date of receipt in the case of cargo. In the case of delay, the complaint must be made at the latest within twenty-one days from the date on which the baggage or cargo have been placed at his or her disposal.
   3. Every complaint must be made in writing and given or dispatched within the times aforesaid.
   4. If no complaint is made within the times aforesaid, no action shall lie against the carrier, save in the case of fraud on its part.
  
  Article 32 - Death of person liable
   In the case of the death of the person liable, an action for damages lies in accordance with the terms of this Convention against those legally representing his or her estate.
  
  Article 33 - Jurisdiction
   1. An action for damages must be brought, at the option of the plaintiff, in the territory of one of the States Parties, either before the court of the domicile of the carrier or of its principal place of business, or where it has a place of business through which the contract has been made or before the court at the place of destination.
   2. In respect of damage resulting from the death or injury of a passenger, an action may be brought before one of the courts mentioned in paragraph 1 of this Article, or in the territory of a State Party in which at the time of the accident the passenger has his or her principal and permanent residence and to or from which the carrier operates services for the carriage of passengers by air, either on its own aircraft or on another carrier's aircraft pursuant to a commercial agreement, and in which that carrier conducts its business of carriage of passengers by air from premises leased or owned by the carrier itself or by another carrier with which it has a commercial agreement.
   3. For the purposes of paragraph 2,
    (a) "commercial agreement" means an agreement, other than an agency agreement, made between carriers and relating to the provision of their joint services for carriage of passengers by air;
    (b) "principal and permanent residence" means the one fixed and permanent abode of the passenger at the time of the accident. The nationality of the passenger shall not be the determining factor in this regard.
   4. Questions of procedure shall be governed by the law of the court seized of the case.
  
  Article 34 - Arbitration
   1. Subject to the provisions of this Article, the parties to the contract of carriage for cargo may stipulate that any dispute relating to the liability of the carrier under this Convention shall be settled by arbitration. Such agreement shall be in writing.
   2. The arbitration proceedings shall, at the option of the claimant, take place within one of the jurisdictions referred to in Article 33.
   3. The arbitrator or arbitration tribunal shall apply the provisions of this Convention.
   4. The provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 of this Article shall be deemed to be part of every arbitration clause or agreement, and any term of such clause or agreement which is inconsistent therewith shall be null and void.
  
  Article 35 - Limitation of actions
   1. The right to damages shall be extinguished if an action is not brought within a period of two years, reckoned from the date of arrival at the destination, or from the date on which the aircraft ought to have arrived, or from the date on which the carriage stopped.
   2. The method of calculating that period shall be determined by the law of the court seized of the case.
   
  Article 36 - Successive carriage
   1. In the case of carriage to be performed by various successive carriers and falling within the definition set out in paragraph 3 of Article 1, each carrier which accepts passengers, baggage or cargo is subject to the rules set out in this Convention and is deemed to be one of the parties to the contract of carriage in so far as the contract deals with that part of the carriage which is performed under its supervision.
   2. In the case of carriage of this nature, the passenger or any person entitled to compensation in respect of him or her can take action only against the carrier which performed the carriage during which the accident or the delay occurred, save in the case where, by express agreement, the first carrier has assumed liability for the whole journey.
   3. As regards baggage or cargo, the passenger or consignor will have a right of action against the first carrier, and the passenger or consignee who is entitled to delivery will have a right of action against the last carrier, and further, each may take action against the carrier which performed the carriage during which the destruction, loss, damage or delay took place. These carriers will be jointly and severally liable to the passenger or to the consignor or consignee.
  
  Article 37 - Right of recourse against third parties
   Nothing in this Convention shall prejudice the question whether a person liable for damage in accordance with its provisions has a right of recourse against any other person.
  
  Chapter IV - Combined Carriage
  
  Article 38 - Combined carriage
   1. In the case of combined carriage performed partly by air and partly by any other mode of carriage, the provisions of this Convention shall, subject to paragraph 4 of Article 18, apply only to the carriage by air, provided that the carriage by air falls within the terms of Article 1.
   2. Nothing in this Convention shall prevent the parties in the case of combined carriage from inserting in the document of air carriage conditions relating to other modes of carriage, provided that the provisions of this Convention are observed as regards the carriage by air.
    
  Chapter V - Carriage by Air Performed by a Person other than the Contracting Carrier
  
  Article 39 - Contracting carrier - actual carrier
   The provisions of this Chapter apply when a person (hereinafter referred to as "the contracting carrier") as a principal makes a contract of carriage governed by this Convention with a passenger or consignor or with a person acting on behalf of the passenger or consignor, and another person (hereinafter referred to as "the actual carrier") performs, by virtue of authority from the contracting carrier, the whole or part of the carriage, but is not with respect to such part a successive carrier within the meaning of this Convention. Such authority shall be presumed in the absence of proof to the contrary.

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  Article 40 - Respective liability of contracting and actual carriers
   If an actual carrier performs the whole or part of carriage which, according to the contract referred to in Article 39, is governed by this Convention, both the contracting carrier and the actual carrier shall, except as otherwise provided in this Chapter, be subject to the rules of this Convention, the former for the whole of the carriage contemplated in the contract, the latter solely for the carriage which it performs.
  
  Article 41 - Mutual liability
   1. The acts and omissions of the actual carrier and of its servants and agents acting within the scope of their employment shall, in relation to the carriage performed by the actual carrier, be deemed to be also those of the contracting carrier.
   2. The acts and omissions of the contracting carrier and of its servants and agents acting within the scope of their employment shall, in relation to the carriage performed by the actual carrier, be deemed to be also those of the actual carrier. Nevertheless, no such act or omission shall subject the actual carrier to liability exceeding the amounts referred to in Articles 21, 22, 23 and 24. Any special agreement under which the contracting carrier assumes obligations not imposed by this Convention or any waiver of rights or defences conferred by this Convention or any special declaration of interest in delivery at destination contemplated in Article 22 shall not affect the actual carrier unless agreed to by it.
  
  Article 42 - Addressee of complaints and instructions
   Any complaint to be made or instruction to be given under this Convention to the carrier shall have the same effect whether addressed to the contracting carrier or to the actual carrier. Nevertheless, instructions referred to in Article 12 shall only be effective if addressed to the contracting carrier.
  
  Article 43 - Servants and agents
   In relation to the carriage performed by the actual carrier, any servant or agent of that carrier or of the contracting carrier shall, if they prove that they acted within the scope of their employment, be entitled to avail themselves of the conditions and limits of liability which are applicable under this Convention to the carrier whose servant or agent they are, unless it is proved that they acted in a manner that prevents the limits of liability from being invoked in accordance with this Convention.
  
  Article 44 - Aggregation of damages
   In relation to the carriage performed by the actual carrier, the aggregate of the amounts recoverable from that carrier and the contracting carrier, and from their servants and agents acting within the scope of their employment, shall not exceed the highest amount which could be awarded against either the contracting carrier or the actual carrier under this Convention, but none of the persons mentioned shall be liable for a sum in excess of the limit applicable to that person.
  
  Article 45 - Addressee of claims
   In relation to the carriage performed by the actual carrier, an action for damages may be brought, at the option of the plaintiff, against that carrier or the contracting carrier, or against both together or separately. If the action is brought against only one of those carriers, that carrier shall have the right to require the other carrier to be joined in the proceedings, the procedure and effects being governed by the law of the court seized of the case.
   
  Article 46 - Additional jurisdiction
   Any action for damages contemplated in Article 45 must be brought, at the option of the plaintiff, in the territory of one of the States Parties, either before a court in which an action may be brought against the contracting carrier, as provided in Article 33, or before the court having jurisdiction at the place where the actual carrier has its domicile or its principal place of business.
  
  Article 47 - Invalidity of contractual provisions
   Any contractual provision tending to relieve the contracting carrier or the actual carrier of liability under this Chapter or to fix a lower limit than that which is applicable according to this Chapter shall be null and void, but the nullity of any such provision does not involve the nullity of the whole contract, which shall remain subject to the provisions of this Chapter.
  
  Article 48 - Mutual relations of contracting and actual carriers
   Except as provided in Article 45, nothing in this Chapter shall affect the rights and obligations of the carriers between themselves, including any right of recourse or indemnification.
  
  Chapter VI - Other Provisions
  
  Article 49 - Mandatory application
   Any clause contained in the contract of carriage and all special agreements entered into before the damage occurred by which the parties purport to infringe the rules laid down by this Convention, whether by deciding the law to be applied, or by altering the rules as to jurisdiction, shall be null and void.  
  
  Article 50 - Insurance
   States Parties shall require their carriers to maintain adequate insurance covering their liability under this Convention. A carrier may be required by the State Party into which it operates to furnish evidence that it maintains adequate insurance covering its liability under this Convention.
  
  Article 51 - Carriage performed in extraordinary circumstances
   The provisions of Articles 3 to 5, 7 and 8 relating to the documentation of carriage shall not apply in the case of carriage performed in extraordinary circumstances outside the normal scope of a carrier's business.
  
  Article 52 - Definition of days
   The expression "days" when used in this Convention means calendar days, not working days.
  
  Chapter VII - Final Clauses
  
  Article 53 - Signature, ratification and entry into force
   1. This Convention shall be open for signature in Montreal on 28 May 1999 by States participating in the International Conference on Air Law held at Montreal from 10 to 28 May 1999. After 28 May 1999, the Convention shall be open to all States for signature at the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization in Montreal until it enters into force in accordance with paragraph 6 of this Article.
   2. This Convention shall similarly be open for signature by Regional Economic Integration Organisations. For the purpose of this Convention, a "Regional Economic Integration Organisation" means any organisation which is constituted by sovereign States of a given region which has competence in respect of certain matters governed by this Convention and has been duly authorized to sign and to ratify, accept, approve or accede to this Convention. A reference to a "State Party" or "States Parties" in this Convention, otherwise than in paragraph 2 of Article 1, paragraph 1(b) of Article 3, paragraph (b) of Article 5, Articles 23, 33, 46 and paragraph (b) of Article 57, applies equally to a Regional Economic Integration Organisation. For the purpose of Article 24, the references to "a majority of the States Parties" and "one-third of the States Parties" shall not apply to a Regional Economic Integration Organisation.
   3. This Convention shall be subject to ratification by States and by Regional Economic Integration Organisations which have signed it.
   4. Any State or Regional Economic Integration Organisation which does not sign this Convention may accept, approve or accede to it at any time.
   5. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the International Civil Aviation Organization, which is hereby designated the Depositary.
   6. This Convention shall enter into force on the sixtieth day following the date of deposit of the thirtieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession with the Depositary between the States which have deposited such instrument. An instrument deposited by a Regional Economic Integration Organisation shall not be counted for the purpose of this paragraph.
   7. For other States and for other Regional Economic Integration Organisations, this Convention shall take effect sixty days following the date of deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
   8. The Depositary shall promptly notify all signatories and States Parties of:
    (a) each signature of this Convention and date thereof;
    (b) each deposit of an instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession and date thereof;
    (c) the date of entry into force of this Convention;
    (d) the date of the coming into force of any revision of the limits of liability established under this Convention;
    (e) any denunciation under Article 54.
  
  Article 54 - Denunciation
   1. Any State Party may denounce this Convention by written notification to the Depositary.
   2. Denunciation shall take effect one hundred and eighty days following the date on which notification is received by the Depositary.
  
  Article 55 - Relationship with other Warsaw Convention instruments
   This Convention shall prevail over any rules which apply to international carriage by air:
   1. between States Parties to this Convention by virtue of those States commonly being Party to
    (a) the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules relating to International Carriage by Air signed at Warsaw on 12 October 1929 (hereinafter called the Warsaw Convention);
    (b) the Protocol to amend the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules relating to International Carriage by Air signed at Warsaw on 12 October 1929, done at The Hague on 28 September 1955 (hereinafter called The Hague Protocol);
    (c) the Convention, Supplementary to the Warsaw Convention, for the Unification of Certain Rules relating to International Carriage by Air Performed by a Person other than the Contracting Carrier, signed at Guadalajara on 18 September 1961 (hereinafter called the Guadalajara Convention);
    (d) the Protocol to amend the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules relating to International Carriage by Air signed at Warsaw on 12 October 1929 as amended by the Protocol done at The Hague on 28 September 1955, signed at Guatemala City on 8 March 1971 (hereinafter called the Guatemala City Protocol);
    (e) Additional Protocol Nos. 1 to 3 and Montreal Protocol No. 4 to amend the Warsaw Convention as amended by The Hague Protocol or the Warsaw Convention as amended by both The Hague Protocol and the Guatemala City Protocol, signed at Montreal on 25 September 1975 (hereinafter called the Montreal Protocols); or
   2. within the territory of any single State Party to this Convention by virtue of that State being Party to one or more of the instruments referred to in sub-paragraphs (a) to (e) above.
  
  Article 56 - States with more than one system of law
    1. If a State has two or more territorial units in which different systems of law are applicable in relation to matters dealt with in this Convention, it may at the time of signature, ratification, acceptance, approval or accession declare that this Convention shall extend to all its territorial units or only to one or more of them and may modify this declaration by submitting another declaration at any time.
   2. Any such declaration shall be notified to the Depositary and shall state expressly the territorial units to which the Convention applies.
   3. In relation to a State Party which has made such a declaration:
    (a) references in Article 23 to "national currency" shall be construed as referring to the currency of the relevant territorial unit of that State; and
    (b) the reference in Article 28 to "national law" shall be construed as referring to the law of the relevant territorial unit of that State.
  
  Article 57 - Reservations
   No reservation may be made to this Convention except that a State Party may at any time declare by a notification addressed to the Depositary that this Convention shall not apply to:
    (a) international carriage by air performed and operated directly by that State Party for non-commercial purposes in respect to its functions and duties as a sovereign State; and/or
    (b) the carriage of persons, cargo and baggage for its military authorities on aircraft registered in or leased by that State Party, the whole capacity of which has been reserved by or on behalf of such authorities.
   IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, having been duly authorized, have signed this Convention.
   DONE at Montreal on the 28th day of May of the year one thousand nine hundred and ninety-nine in the English, Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish languages, all texts being equally authentic. This Convention shall remain deposited in the archives of the International Civil Aviation Organization, and certified copies thereof shall be transmitted by the Depositary to all States Parties to this Convention, as well as to all States Parties to the Warsaw Convention, The Hague Protocol, the Guadalajara Convention, the Guatemala City Protocol and the Montreal Protocols.

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  Annex 5:
  
  United Nations Convention on International Multimodal Transport of Goods
  
  (Geneva, 24 May 1980)
  
  The states parties to this Convention Recognizing
  
   (a) that international multimodal transport is one means of facilitating the orderly expansion of world trade;
   
   (b) the need to stimulate the development of smooth, economic and efficient multimodal transport services adequate to the requirements of the trade concerned;
   
   (c) the desirability of ensuring the orderly development of international multimodal transport in the interest of all countries and the need to consider the special problems of transit countries;
   
   (d) the desirability of determining certain rules relating to the carriage of goods by international multimodal transport contracts, including equitable provisions concerning the liability of multimodal transport operators;
   
   (e) the need that this Convention should not affect the application of any international convention or national law relating to the regulation and control of transport operations;
   
   (f) the right of each State to regulate and control at the national level multimodal transport operators and operations;
   
   (g) the need to have regard to the special interest and problems of developing countries, for example, as regards introduction of new technologies, participation in multimodal services of their national carriers and operators, cost efficiency thereof and maximum use of local labour and insurance;
   
   (h) the need to ensure a balance of interests between suppliers and users of multimodal transport services;
   
   (i) the need to facilitate customs procedures with due consideration to the problems of transit countries;
   
  Agreeing to the following basic principles;
   
   (a) that a fair balance of interests between developed and developing countries should be established and an equitable distribution of activities between these groups of countries should be attained in international multimodal transport;
   
   (b) that consultation should take place on terms and conditions of service, both before and after the introduction of any new technology in the multimodal transport of goods, between the multimodal transport operator, shippers, shippers’ organizations and appropriate national authorities;
   
   (c) the freedom for shippers to choose between multimodal and segmented transport services;
   
   (d) that the liability of the multimodal transport operator under this Convention should be based on the principle of presumed fault or neglect,
  
  Have decided  to conclude a Convention for this purpose and have thereto agreed as follows:
  
  PART I. GENERAL PROVISIONS
  
  Article 1 Definitions
   For the purposes of this Convention:
   1. "International multimodal transport" means the carriage of goods by at least two different modes of transport on the basis of a multimodal transport contract from a place in one country at which the goods are taken in charge by the multimodal transport operator to a place designated for delivery situated in a different country. The operations of pick-up and delivery of goods carried out in the performance of a unimodal transport contract, as defined in such contract, shall not be considered as international multimodal transport.
   2. "Multimodal transport operator" means any person who on his own behalf or through another person acting on his behalf concludes a multimodal transport contract and who acts as a principal, not as an agent or on behalf of the consignor or of the carriers participating in the multimodal transport operations, and who assumes responsibility for the performance of the contract.
   3. "Multimodal transport contract" means a contract whereby a multimodal transport operator undertakes, against payment of freight, to perform or to procure the performance of international multimodal transport.
   4. "Multimodal transport document" means a document which evidences a multimodal transport contract, the taking in charge of the goods by the multimodal transport operator, and an undertaking by him to deliver the goods in accordance with the terms of that contract.
   5. "Consignor" means any person by whom or in whose name or on whose behalf a multimodal transport contract has been concluded with the multimodal transport operator, or any person by whom or in whose name or on whose behalf the goods are actually delivered to the multimodal transport operator in relation to the multimodal transport contract.
   6. "Consignee" means the person entitled to take delivery of the goods.
   7. "Goods" includes any container, pallet or similar article of transport or packaging, if supplied by the consignor.
   8. "International convention" means an international agreement concluded among States in written form and governed by international law.
   9. "Mandatory national law" means any statutory law concerning carriage of goods the provisions of which cannot be departed from by contractual stipulation to the detriment of the consignor.
   10. "Writing" means, inter alia , telegram or telex.
  
  Article 2 Scope of application
   The provisions of this Convention shall apply to all contracts of multimodal transport between places in two States, if:
    (a) the place for the taking in charge of the goods by the multimodal transport operator as provided for in the multimodal transport contract is located in a Contracting State, or
    (b) the place for delivery of the goods by the multimodal transport operator as provided for in the multimodal transport contract is located in a Contracting State.
  
  Article 3 Mandatory application
   1. When a multimodal transport contract has been concluded which according to article 2 shall be governed by this Convention, the provisions of this Convention shall be mandatorily applicable to such contract.
   2. Nothing in this Convention shall affect the right of the consignor to choose between multimodal transport and segmented transport.
  
  Article 4 Regulation and control of multimodal transport
   1. This Convention shall not affect, or be incompatible with, the application of any international convention or national law relating to the regulation and control of transport operations.
   2. This Convention shall not affect the right of each State to regulate and control at the national level multimodal transport operations and multimodal transport operators, including the right to take measures relating to consultations, especially before the introduction of new technologies and services, between multimodal transport operators, shippers, shippers’ organizations and appropriate national authorities on terms and conditions of service; licensing of multimodal transport operators; participation in transport; and all other steps in the national economic and commercial interest.
   3. The multimodal transport operator shall comply with the applicable law of the country in which he operates and with the provisions of this Convention.
  
  PART II. DOCUMENTATION
  
  Article 5 Issue of multimodal transport document
   1. When the goods are taken in charge by the multimodal transport operator, he shall issue a multimodal transport document which, at the option of the consignor, shall be in either negotiable or non-negotiable form.
   2. The multimodal transport document shall be signed by the multimodal transport operator or by a person having authority from him.
   3. The signature on the multimodal transport document may be in handwriting, printed in facsimile, perforated, stamped, in symbols, or made by any other mechanical or electronic means, if not inconsistent with the law of the country where the multimodal transport document is issued.
   4. If the consignor so agrees, a non-negotiable multimodal transport document may be issued by making use of any mechanical or other means preserving a record of the particulars stated in article 8 to be contained in the multimodal transport document. In such a case the multimodal transport operator, after having taken the goods in charge, shall deliver to the consignor a readable document containing all the particulars so recorded, and such document shall for the purposes of the provisions of this Convention be deemed to be a multimodal transport document.
  
  Article 6 Negotiable multimodal transport document
   1. Where a multimodal transport document is issued in negotiable form:
    (a) it shall be made out to order or to bearer;
    (b) if made out to order it shall be transferable by endorsement;
    (c) if made out to bearer it shall be transferable without endorsement;
    (d) if issued in a set of more than one original it shall indicate the number of originals in the set;
    (e) if any copies are issued each copy shall be marked "non-negotiable copy".
   2. Delivery of the goods may be demanded from the multimodal transport operator or a person acting on his behalf only against surrender of the negotiable multimodal transport document duly endorsed where necessary.
   3. The multimodal transport operator shall be discharged from his obligation to deliver the goods if, where a negotiable multimodal transport document has been issued in a set of more than one original, he or a person acting on his behalf has in good faith delivered the goods against surrender of one of such originals.
  
  Article 7 Non-negotiable multimodal transport document
   1. Where a multimodal transport document is issued in non-negotiable form it shall indicate a named consignee.
   2. The multimodal transport operator shall be discharged from his obligation to deliver the goods if he makes delivery thereof to the consignee named in such non-negotiable multimodal transport document or to such other person as he may be duly instructed, as a rule, in writing.
  
  Article 8 Contents of the multimodal transport document
   1. The multimodal transport document shall contain the following particulars:
    (a) the general nature of the goods, the leading marks necessary for identification of the goods, an express statement, if applicable, as to the dangerous character of the goods, the number of packages or pieces, and the gross weight of the goods or their quantity otherwise expressed, all such particulars as furnished by the consignor;
    (b) the apparent condition of the goods;
    (c) the name and principal place of business of the multimodal transport operator;
    (d) the name of the consignor;
    (e) the consignee, if named by the consignor;
    (f) the place and date of taking in charge of the goods by the multimodal transport operator;
    (g) the place of delivery of the goods;
    (h) the date or the period of delivery of the goods at the place of delivery, if expressly agreed upon between the parties;
    (i) a statement indicating whether the multimodal transport document is negotiable or non-negotiable;
    (j) the place and date of issue of the multimodal transport document;
    (k) the signature of the multimodal transport operator or of a person having authority from him;
    (l) the freight for each mode of transport, if expressly agreed between the parties, or the freight, including its currency, to the extent payable by the consignee or other indication that freight is payable by him.
    (m) the intended journey route, modes of transport and places of transhipment, if known at the time of issuance of the multimodal transport document;
    (n) the statement referred to in paragraph 3 of article 28;
    (o) any other particulars which the parties may agree to insert in the multimodal transport document, if not inconsistent with the law of the country where the multimodal transport document is issued.
   2. The absence from the multimodal document of one or more of the particulars referred to in paragraph 1 of this article shall not affect the legal character of the document as a multimodal transport document provided that it nevertheless meets the requirements set out in paragraph 4 of article 1.
   
  Article 9 Reservations in the multimodal transport document
   1. If the multimodal transport document contains particulars concerning the general nature, leading marks, number of packages or pieces, weight or quantity of the goods which the multimodal transport operator or a person acting on his behalf knows, or has reasonable grounds to suspect, do not accurately represent the goods actually taken in charge, or if he has no reasonable means of checking such particulars, the multimodal transport operator or a person acting on his behalf shall insert in the multimodal transport document a reservation specifying these inaccuracies, grounds of suspicion or the absence of reasonable means of checking.
   2. If the multimodal transport operator or a person acting on his behalf fails to note on the multimodal transport document the apparent condition of the goods, he is deemed to have noted on the multimodal transport document that the goods were in apparent good condition.
  
  Article 10 Evidentiary effect of the multimodal transport document
   Except for particulars in respect of which and to the extent to which a reservation permitted under article 9 has been entered:
    (a) the multimodal transport document shall be prima facie evidence of the taking in charge by the multimodal transport operator of the goods as described therein; and
    (b) proof to the contrary by the multimodal transport operator shall not be admissible if the multimodal transport document is issued in negotiable form and has been transferred to a third party, including a consignee, who has acted in good faith in reliance on the description of the goods therein.
  
  Article 11 Liability for intentional misstatements or omissions
   When the multimodal transport operator, with intent to defraud, gives in the multimodal transport document false information concerning the goods or omits any information required to be included under paragraph 1(a) or (b) of article 8 or under article 9, he shall be liable, without the benefit of the limitation of liability provided for in this Convention, for any loss, damage or expenses incurred by a third party, including a consignee, who acted in reliance on the description of the goods in the multimodal transport document issued.
  
  Article 12 Guarantee by the consignor
   1. The consignor shall be deemed to have guaranteed to the multimodal transport operator the accuracy, at the time the goods were taken in charge by the multimodal transport operator, or particulars relating to the general nature of the goods, their marks, number, weight and quantity and, if applicable, to the dangerous character of the goods, as furnished by him for insertion in the multimodal transport document.
   2. The consignor shall indemnify the multimodal transport operator against loss resulting from inaccuracies in or inadequacies of the particulars referred to in paragraph 1 of this article. The consignor shall remain liable even if the multimodal transport document has been transferred by him. The right of the multimodal transport operator to such indemnity shall in no way limit his liability under the multimodal transport contract to any person other than the consignor.
  
  Article 13 Other documents
   The issue of the multimodal transport document does not preclude the issue, if necessary, of other documents relating to transport or other services involved in international multimodal transport, in accordance with applicable international conventions or national law. However, the issue of such other documents shall not affect the legal character of the multimodal transport document.
  
  PART III. LIABILITY OF THE MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT OPERATOR
  
  Article 14 Period of responsibility
   1. The responsibility of the multimodal transport operator for the goods under this Convention covers the period from the time he takes the goods in his charge to the time of their delivery.
   2. For the purpose of this article, the multimodal transport operator is deemed to be in charge of the goods:
    (a) from the time he has taken over the goods from:
     (i) the consignor or a person acting on his behalf; or
     (ii) an authority or other third party to whom, pursuant to law or regulations applicable at the place of taking in charge, the goods must be handed over for transport;
    (b) until the time he has delivered the goods:
     (i) by handing over the goods to the consignee; or
     (ii) in cases where the consignee does not receive the goods from the multimodal transport operator, by placing them at the disposal of the consignee in accordance with the multimodal transport contract or with the law or with the usage of the particular trade applicable at the place of delivery; or
     (iii) by handing over the goods to an authority or other third party to whom, pursuant to law or regulations applicable at the place of delivery, the goods must be handed over.
   3. In paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article, reference to the multimodal transport operator shall include his servants or agents or any other person of whose services he makes use for the performance of the multimodal transport contract, and reference to the consignor or consignee shall include their servants or agents.
  
  Article 15 The liability of the multimodal transport operator for his servants, agents and other persons
   Subject to article 21, the multimodal transport operator shall be liable for the acts and omissions of his servants or agents, when any such servant or agent is acting within the scope of his employment, or of any other person of whose services he makes use for the performance of the multimodal transport contract, when such person is acting in the performance of the contract, as if such acts and omissions were his own.
  
  Article 16 Basis of liability
   1. The multimodal transport operator shall be liable for loss resulting from loss of or damage to the goods, as well as from delay in delivery, if the occurrence which caused the loss, damage or delay in delivery took place while the goods were in his charge as defined in article 14, unless the multimodal transport operator proves that he, his servants or agents or any other person referred to in article 15 took all measures that could reasonably be required to avoid the occurrence and its consequences.
   2. Delay in delivery occurs when the goods have not been delivered within the time expressly agreed upon or, in the absence of such agreement, within the time which it would be reasonable to require of a diligent multimodal transport operator, having regard to the circumstances of the case.
   3. If the goods have not been delivered within 90 consecutive days following the date of delivery determined according to paragraph 2 of this article, the claimant may treat the goods as lost.
  
  Article 17 Concurrent causes
   Where fault or neglect on the part of the multimodal transport operator, his servants or agents or any person referred to in article 15 combines with another cause to produce loss, damage or delay in delivery, the multimodal transport operator shall be liable only to the extent that the loss, damage or delay in delivery is attributable to such fault or neglect, provided that the multimodal transport operator proves the part of the loss, damage or delay in delivery not attributable thereto.
  
  Article 18 Limitation of liability
   1. When the multimodal transport operator is liable for loss resulting from loss of or damage to the goods according to article 16, his liability shall be limited to an amount not exceeding 920 units of account per package or other shipping unit or 2.75 units of account per kilogramme of gross weight of the goods lost or damaged, whichever is the higher.
   2. For the purpose of calculating which amount is the higher in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article, the following rules apply:
    (a) where a container, pallet or similar article of transport is used to consolidate goods, the packages or other shipping units enumerated in the multimodal transport document as packed in such article of transport are deemed packages or shipping units. Except as aforesaid the goods in such article of transport are deemed one shipping unit.
    (b) in cases where the article of transport itself has been lost or damaged, that article of transport, if not owned or otherwise supplied by the multimodal transport operator, is considered one separate shipping unit.
   3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article, if the international multimodal transport does not, according to the contract, include carriage of goods by sea or by inland waterways, the liability of the multimodal transport operator shall be limited to an amount not exceeding 8.33 units of account per kilogramme of gross weight of the goods lost or damaged.
   4. The liability of the multimodal transport operator for loss resulting from delay in delivery according to the provisions of article 16 shall be limited to an amount equivalent to two and a half times the freight payable for the goods delayed, but not exceeding the total freight payable under the multimodal transport contract.
   5. The aggregate liability of the multimodal transport operator, under paragraphs 1 and 4 or paragraphs 3 and 4 of this article, shall not exceed the limit of liability for total loss of the goods as determined by paragraph 1 or 3 of this article.
   6. By agreement between the multimodal transport operator and the consignor, limits of liability exceeding those provided for in paragraphs 1, 3 and 4 of this article may be fixed in the multimodal transport document.
   7. "Unit of account" means the unit of account mentioned in article 31.
  
  Article 19 Localized damage
   When the loss of or damage to the goods occurred during one particular stage of the multimodal transport, in respect of which an applicable international convention or mandatory national law provides a higher limit of liability than the limit that would follow from application of paragraphs 1 to 3 of article 18, then the limit of the multimodal transport operator’s liability for such loss or damage shall be determined by reference to the provisions of such convention or mandatory national law.
  
  Article 20 Non-contractual liability
   1. The defences and limits of liability provided for in this Convention shall apply in any action against the multimodal transport operator in respect of loss resulting from loss of or damage to the goods, as well as from delay in delivery, whether the action be founded in contract, in tort or otherwise.
   2. If an action in respect of loss resulting from loss of or damage to the goods or from delay in delivery is brought against the servant or agent of the multimodal transport operator, if such servant or agent proves that he acted within the scope of his employment, or against any other person of whose services he makes use for the performance of the multimodal transport contract, if such other person proves that he acted within the performance of the contract, the servant or agent or such other person shall be entitled to avail himself of the defences and limits of liability which the multimodal transport operator is entitled to invoke under this Convention.
   3. Except as provided in article 21, the aggregate of the amounts recoverable from the multimodal transport operator and from a servant or agent or any other person of whose services he makes use for the performance of the multimodal transport contract shall not exceed the limits of liability provided for in this Convention.
  
  Article 21 Loss of the right to limit liability
   1. The multimodal transport operator is not entitled to the benefit of the limitation of liability provided for in this Convention if it is proved that the loss, damage or delay in delivery resulted from an act or omission of the multimodal transport operator done with the intent to cause such loss, damage or delay or recklessly and with knowledge that such loss, damage or delay would probably result.
   2. Notwithstanding paragraph 2 of article 20, a servant or agent of the multimodal transport operator or other person of whose services he makes use for the performance of the multimodal transport contract is not entitled to the benefit of the limitation of liability provided for in this Convention if it is proved that the loss, damage or delay in delivery resulted from an act or omission of such servant, agent or other person, done with the intent to cause such loss, damage or delay or recklessly and with knowledge that such loss, damage or delay would probably result.
  
  PART IV. LIABILITY OF THE CONSIGNOR
  
  Article 22 General rule
   The consignor shall be liable for loss sustained by the multimodal transport operator if such loss is caused by the fault or neglect of the consignor, or his servants or agents when such servants or agents are acting within the scope of their employment. Any servant or agent of the consignor shall be liable for such loss if the loss is caused by fault or neglect on his part.
  
  Article 23 Special rules on dangerous goods
   1. The consignor shall mark or label in a suitable manner dangerous goods as dangerous.
   2. When the consignor hands over dangerous goods to the multimodal transport operator or any person acting on his behalf, the consignor shall inform him of the dangerous character of the goods and, if necessary, the precautions to be taken. If the consignor fails to do so and the multimodal transport operator does not otherwise have knowledge of their dangerous character:
    (a) the consignor shall be liable to the multimodal transport operator for all loss resulting from the shipment of such goods; and
    (b) the goods may at any time be unloaded, destroyed or rendered innocuous, as the circumstances may require, without payment of compensation.
   3. The provisions of paragraph 2 of this article may not be invoked by any person if during the multimodal transport he has taken the goods in his charge with knowledge of their dangerous character.
   4. If, in cases where the provisions of paragraph 2(b) of this article do not apply or may not be invoked, dangerous goods become an actual danger to life or property, they may be unloaded, destroyed or rendered innocuous, as the circumstances may require, without payment of compensation except where there is an obligation to contribute in general average or where the multimodal transport operator is liable in accordance with the provisions of article 16.
  
  PART V. CLAIMS AND ACTIONS
  
  Article 24 Notice of loss, damage or delay
   1. Unless notice of loss or damage, specifying the general nature of such loss or damage, is given in writing by the consignee to the multimodal transport operator not later than the working day after the day when the goods were handed over to the consignee, such handing over is prima facie evidence of the delivery by the multimodal transport operator of the goods as described in the multimodal transport document.
   2. Where the loss or damage is not apparent, the provisions of paragraph 1 of this article apply correspondingly if notice in writing is not given within six consecutive days after the day when the goods were handed over to the consignee.
   3. If the state of the goods at the time they were handed over to the consignee has been the subject of a joint survey or inspection by the parties or their authorized representatives at the place of delivery, notice in writing need not be given of loss or damage ascertained during such survey or inspection.
   4. In the case of any actual or apprehended loss or damage the multimodal transport operator and the consignee shall give all reasonable facilities to each other for inspecting and tallying the goods.
   5. No compensation shall be payable for loss resulting from delay in delivery unless notice has been given in writing to the multimodal transport operator within 60 consecutive days after the day when the goods were delivered by handing over to the consignee or when the consignee has been notified that the goods have been delivered in accordance with paragraph 2(b)(ii) or (iii) of article 14.
   6. Unless notice of loss or damage, specifying the general nature of the loss or damage, is given in writing by the multimodal transport operator to the consignor not later than 90 consecutive days after the occurrence of such loss or damage or after the delivery of the goods in accordance with paragraph 2(b) of article 14, whichever is later, the failure to give such notice is prima facie evidence that the multimodal transport operator has sustained no loss or damage due to the fault or neglect of the consignor, his servants or agents.
   7. If any of the notice periods provided for in paragraphs 2, 5 and 6 of this article terminates on a day which is not a working day at the place of delivery, such period shall be extended until the next working day.
   8. For the purpose of this article, notice given to a person acting on the multimodal transport operator’s behalf, including any person of whose services he makes use at the place of delivery, or to a person acting on the consignor’s behalf, shall be deemed to have been given to the multimodal transport operator, or to the consignor, respectively.
  
  Article 25 Limitation of actions
   1. Any action relating to international multimodal transport under this Convention shall be time-barred if judicial or arbitral proceedings have not been instituted within a period of two years. However, if notification in writing, stating the nature and main particulars of the claim, has not been given within six months after the day when the goods were delivered or, where the goods have not been delivered, after the day on which they should have been delivered, the action shall be time-barred at the expiry of this period.
   2. The limitation period commences on the day after the day on which the multimodal transport operator has delivered the goods or part thereof or, where the goods have not been delivered, on the day after the last day on which the goods should have been delivered.
   3. The person against whom a claim is made may at any time during the running of the limitation period extend that period by a declaration in writing to the claimant. This period may be further extended by another declaration or declarations.
   4. Provided that the provisions of another applicable international convention are not to the contrary, a recourse action for indemnity by a person held liable under this Convention may be instituted even after the expiration of the limitation period provided for in the preceding paragraphs if instituted within the time allowed by the law of the State where proceedings are instituted; however, the time allowed shall not be less than 90 days commencing from the day when the person instituting such action for indemnity has settled the claim or has been served with process in the action against himself.
  
  Article 26 Jurisdiction
   1. In judicial proceedings relating to international multimodal transport under this Convention, the plaintiff, at his option, may institute an action in a court which, according to the law of the State where the court is situated, is competent and within the jurisdiction of which is situated one of the following places:
    (a) the principal place of business or, in the absence thereof, the habitual residence of the defendant; or
    (b) the place where the multimodal transport contract was made, provided that the defendant has there a place of business, branch or agency through which the contract was made; or
    (c) the place of taking the goods in charge for international multimodal transport or the place of delivery; or
    (d) any other place designated for that purpose in the multimodal transport contract and evidenced in the multimodal transport document.
   2. No judicial proceedings relating to international multimodal transport under this Convention may be instituted in a place not specified in paragraph 1 of this article. The provisions of this article do not constitute an obstacle to the jurisdiction of the Contracting States for provisional or protective measures.
   3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this article, an agreement made by the parties after a claim has arisen, which designates the place where the plaintiff may institute an action, shall be effective.
   4. (a) Where an action has been instituted in accordance with the provisions of this article or where judgement in such an action has been delivered, no new action shall be instituted between the same parties on the same grounds unless the judgement in the first action is not enforceable in the country in which the new proceedings are instituted.
      (b) For the purposes of this article neither the institution of measures to obtain enforcement of a judgement nor the removal of an action to a different court within the same country shall be considered as the starting of a new action.
   
  Article 27 Arbitration
   1. Subject to the provisions of this article, parties may provide by agreement evidenced in writing that any dispute that may arise relating to international multimodal transport under this Convention shall be referred to arbitration.
   2. The arbitration proceedings shall, at the option of the claimant, be instituted at one of the following places;
    (a) a place in a State within whose territory is situated:
     (i) the principal place of business of the defendant or, in the absence thereof, the habitual residence of the defendant; or
     (ii) the place where the multimodal transport contract was made, provided that the defendant has there a place of business, branch or agency through which the contract was made; or
     (iii) the place of taking the goods in charge for international multimodal transport or the place of delivery; or
    (b) any other place designated for the purpose in the arbitration clause or agreement.
   3. The arbitrator or arbitration tribunal shall apply the provisions of this Convention.
   4. The provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 of this article shall be deemed to be part of every arbitration clause or agreement and any term of such clause or agreement which is inconsistent therewith shall be null and void.
   5. Nothing in this article shall affect the validity of an agreement on arbitration made by the parties after the claim relating to the international multimodal transport has arisen.

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  PART VI. SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS
  
  Article 28 Contractual stipulations
   1. Any stipulation in a multimodal transport contract or multimodal transport document shall be null and void to the extent that it derogates, directly or indirectly, from the provisions of this Convention. The nullity of such a stipulation shall not affect the validity of other provisions of the contract or document of which it forms a part. A clause assigning benefit of insurance of the goods in favour of the multimodal transport operator or any similar clause shall be null and void.
   2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 of this article, the multimodal transport operator may, with the agreement of the consignor, increase his responsibilities and obligations under this Convention.
   3. The multimodal transport document shall contain a statement that the international multimodal transport is subject to the provisions of this Convention which nullify any stipulation derogating therefrom to the detriment of the consignor or the consignee.
   4. Where the claimant in respect of the goods has incurred loss as a result of a stipulation which is null and void by virtue of the present article, or as a result of the omission of the statement referred to in paragraph 3 of this article, the multimodal transport operator must pay compensation to the extent required in order to give the claimant compensation in accordance with the provisions of this Convention for any loss of or damage to the goods as well as for delay in delivery. The multimodal transport operator must, in addition, pay compensation for costs incurred by the claimant for the purpose of exercising his right, provided that costs incurred in the action where the foregoing provision is invoked are to be determined in accordance with the law of the State where proceedings are instituted.
  
  Article 29 General average
   1. Nothing in this Convention shall prevent the application of provisions in the multimodal transport contract or national law regarding the adjustment of general average, if and to the extent applicable.
   2. With the exception of article 25, the provisions of this Convention relating to the liability of the multimodal transport operator for loss of or damage to the goods shall also determine whether the consignee may refuse contribution in general average and the liability of the multimodal transport operator to indemnify the consignee in respect of any such contribution made or any salvage paid.
  
  Article 30 Other conventions
   1. This Convention does not modify the rights or duties provided for in the Brussels International Convention for the unification of certain rules relating to the limitation of owners of sea-going vessels of 25 August 1924; in the Brussels International Convention relating to the limitation of the liability of owners of sea-going ships of 10 October 1957; in the London Convention on limitation of liability for maritime claims of 19 November 1976; and in the Geneva Convention relating to the limitation of the liability of owners of inland navigation vessels (CLN) of 1 March 1973, including amendments to these Conventions, or national law relating to the limitation of liability of owners of sea-going ships and inland navigation vessels.
   2. The provisions of articles 26 and 27 of this Convention do not prevent the application of the mandatory provisions of any other international convention relating to matters dealt with in the said articles, provided that the dispute arises exclusively between parties having their principal place of business in States parties to such other convention. However, this paragraph does not affect the application of paragraph 3 of article 27 of this Convention.
   3. No liability shall arise under the provisions of this Convention for damage caused by a nuclear incident if the operator of a nuclear installation is liable for such damage:
    (a) under either the Paris Convention of 29 July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy as amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964 or the Vienna Convention of 21 May 1963 on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, or amendments thereto; or
    (b) by virtue of national law governing the liability for such damage, provided that such law is in all respects as favourable to persons who may suffer damage as either the Paris or Vienna Conventions.
   4. Carriage of goods such as carriage of goods in accordance with the Geneva Convention of 19 May 1956 on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road in article 2, or the Berne Convention of 7 February 1970 concerning the Carriage of Goods by Rail, article 2, shall not for the States Parties to Conventions governing such carriage be considered as international multimodal transport within the meaning of article 1, paragraph 1, of this Convention, in so far as such States are bound to apply the provisions of such Conventions to such carriage of goods.
   
  Article 31 Unit of account or monetary unit and conversion
    1. The unit of account referred to in article 18 of this Convention is the Special Drawing Right as defined by the International Monetary Fund. The amounts referred to in article 18 shall be converted into the national currency of a State according to the value of such currency on the date of the judgement or award or the date agreed upon by the parties. The value of a national currency, in terms of the Special Drawing Right, of a Contracting State which is a member of the International Monetary Fund, shall be calculated in accordance with the method of valuation applied by the International Monetary Fund, in effect on the date in question, for its operations and transactions. The value of a national currency in terms of the Special Drawing Right of a Contracting State which is not a member of the International Monetary Fund, shall be calculated in a manner determined by that State.
   2. Nevertheless, a State which is not a member of the International Monetary Fund and whose law does not permit the application of the provisions of paragraph 1 of this article may, at the time of signature, ratification, acceptance, approval or accession or at any time thereafter, declare that the limits of liability provided for in this Convention to be applied in its territory shall be fixed as follows: with regard to the limits provided for in paragraph 1 of article 18 to 13,750 monetary units per package or other shipping unit or 41.25 monetary units per kilogramme of gross weight of the goods, and with regard to the limit provided for in paragraph 3 of article 18 to 124 monetary units.
   3. The monetary unit referred to in paragraph 2 of this article corresponds to sixty-five and a half milligrammes of gold of millesimal fineness nine hundred. The conversion of the amount referred to in paragraph 2 of this article into national currency shall be made according to the law of the State concerned.
   4. The calculation mentioned in the last sentence of paragraph 1 of this article and the conversion referred to in paragraph 3 of this article shall be made in such a manner as to express in the national currency of the Contracting State as far as possible the same real value for the amounts in article 18 as is expressed there in units of account.
   5. Contracting States shall communicate to the depositary the manner of calculation pursuant to the last sentence of paragraph 1 of this article, or the result of the conversion pursuant to paragraph 3 of this article, as the case may be, at the time of signature or when depositing their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, or when availing themselves of the option provided for in paragraph 2 of this article and whenever there is a change in the manner of such calculation or in the result of such conversion.
  
  PART VII. CUSTOMS MATTERS
  
  Article 32 Customs transit
   1. Contracting States shall authorize the use of the procedure of customs transit for international multimodal transport.
   2. Subject to provisions of national law or regulations and intergovernmental agreements, the customs transit of goods in international multimodal transport shall be in accordance with the rules and principles contained in articles I to VI of the Annex to this Convention.
   3. When introducing laws or regulations in respect of customs transit procedures relating to multimodal transport of goods, Contracting States should take into consideration articles I to VI of the Annex to this Convention.
  
  PART VIII. FINAL CLAUSES
  
  Article 33 Depositary
   The Secretary-General of the United Nations is hereby designated as the depositary of this Convention.
 
   Article 34 Signature, ratification, acceptance, approval and accession
   1. All States are entitled to become Parties to this Convention by:
    (a) signature not subject to ratification, acceptance or approval; or
    (b) signature subject to and followed by ratification, acceptance or approval; or
    (c) accession.
   2. This Convention shall be open for signature as from 1 September 1980 until and including 31 August 1981 at the Headquarters of the United Nations in New York.
   3. After 31 August 1981, this Convention shall be open for accession by all States which are not signatory States.
   4. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval and accession are to be deposited with the depositary.
   5. Organizations for regional economic integration, constituted by sovereign States members of UNCTAD, and which have competence to negotiate, conclude and apply international agreements in specific fields covered by this Convention shall be similarly entitled to become Parties to this Convention in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs 1 to 4 of this article, thereby assuming in relation to other Parties to this Convention the rights and duties under this Convention in the specific fields referred to above.
  
  Article 35 Reservations
   No reservation may be made to this Convention.
  
  Article 36 Entry into force
   1. This Convention shall enter into force 12 months after the Governments of 30 States have either signed it not subject to ratification, acceptance or approval or have deposited instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession with the depositary.
   2. For each State which ratifies, accepts, approves or accedes to this Convention after the requirements for entry into force given in paragraph 1 of this article have been met, the Convention shall enter into force 12 months after the deposit by such State of the appropriate instrument.
  
  Article 37 Date of application
   Each Contracting State shall apply the provisions of this Convention to multimodal transport contracts concluded on or after the date of entry into force of this Convention in respect of that State.
  
  Article 38 Rights and obligations under existing conventions
   If, according to articles 26 or 27, judicial or arbitral proceedings are brought in a Contracting State in a case relating to international multimodal transport subject to this Convention which takes place between two States of which only one is a Contracting State, and if both these States are at the time of entry into force of this Convention equally bound by another international convention, the court or arbitral tribunal may, in accordance with the obligations under such convention, give effect to the provisions thereof.
  
  Article 39 Revision and amendments
   1. At the request of not less than one third of the Contracting States, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall, after the entry into force of this Convention, convene a conference of the Contracting States for revising or amending it. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall circulate to all Contracting States the texts of any proposals for amendments at least three months before the opening date of the conference.
   2. Any decision by the revision conference, including amendments, shall be taken by a two thirds majority of the States present and voting. Amendments adopted by the conference shall be communicated by the depositary to all the Contracting States for acceptance and to all the States signatories of the Convention for information.
   3. Subject to paragraph 4 below, any amendment adopted by the conference shall enter into force only for those Contracting States which have accepted it, on the first day of the month following one year after its acceptance by two thirds of the Contracting States. For any State accepting an amendment after it has been accepted by two thirds of the Contracting States, the amendment shall enter into force on the first day of the month following one year after its acceptance by that State.
   4. Any amendment adopted by the conference altering the amounts specified in article 18 and paragraph 2 of article 31 or substituting either or both the units defined in paragraphs 1 and 3 of article 31 by other units shall enter into force on the first day of the month following one year after its acceptance by two thirds of the Contracting States. Contracting States which have accepted the altered amounts or the substituted units shall apply them in their relationship with all Contracting States.
   5. Acceptance of amendments shall be effected by the deposit of a formal instrument to that effect with the depositary.
   6. Any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession deposited after the entry into force of any amendment adopted by the conference shall be deemed to apply to the Convention as amended.
  
  Article 40 Denunciation
   1. Each Contracting State may denounce this Convention at any time after the expiration of a period of two years from the date on which this Convention has entered into force by means of a notification in writing addressed to the depositary.
   2. Such denunciation shall take effect on the first day of the month following the expiration of one year after the notification is received by the depositary. Where a longer period is specified in the notification, the denunciation shall take effect upon the expiration of such longer period after the notification is received by the depositary.
   In witness whereof  the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto, have affixed their signatures hereunder on the dates indicated.
   Done at Geneva on 24 May 1980 in one original in the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish languages, all texts being equally authentic.
  
  ANNEX
  
  PROVISIONS ON CUSTOMS MATTERS RELATED TO INTERNATIONAL MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT OF GOODS
  
   Article I
   For the purposes of this Convention:
   "Customs transit procedure" means the customs procedure under which goods are transported under customs control from one custom office to another.
   "Customs office of destination" means any customs office at which a customs transit operation is terminated.
   "Import/export duties and taxes" means customs duties and all other duties, taxes, fees or other charges which are collected on or in connexion with the import/export of goods but not including fees and charges which are limited in amount to the approximate cost of services rendered.
   "Customs transit document" means a form containing the record of data entries and information required for the customs transit operation.
   
   Article II
   1. Subject to the provisions of the law, regulations and international conventions in force in their territories, Contracting States shall grant freedom of transit to goods in international multimodal transport.
   2. Provided that the conditions laid down in the customs transit procedure used for the transit operation are fulfilled to the satisfaction of the customs authorities, goods in international multimodal transport:
    (a) shall not, as a general rule, be subject to customs examination during the journey except to the extent deemed necessary to ensure compliance with rules and regulations which the Customs are responsible for enforcing. Flowing from this, the customs authorities shall normally restrict themselves to the control of customs seals and other security measures at points of entry and exit;
    (b) without prejudice to the application of law and regulations concerning public or national security, public morality or public health, shall not be subject to any customs formalities or requirements additional to those of the customs transit regime used by the transit operation.
   
   Article III
   In order to facilitate the transit of the goods, each Contracting State shall:
    (a) if it is the country of shipment, as far as practicable, take all measures to ensure the completeness and accuracy of the information required for the subsequent transit operations;
    (b) if it is the country of destination:
     (i) take all necessary measures to ensure that goods in customs transit shall be cleared, as a rule, at the customs office of destination of the goods;
     (ii) endeavour to carry out the clearance of goods at a place as near as is possible to the place of final destination of the goods, provided that national law and regulations do not require otherwise.
   
   Article IV
   1. Provided that the conditions laid down in the customs transit procedure are fulfilled to the satisfaction of the customs authorities, the goods in international multimodal transport shall not be subject to the payment of import/export duties and taxes or deposit in lieu thereof in transit countries.
   2. The provisions of the preceding paragraph shall not preclude:
    (a) the levy of fees and charges, by virtue of national regulations on grounds of public security or public health;
    (b) the levy of fees and charges, which are limited in amount to the approximate cost of services rendered, provided they are imposed under conditions of equality.
   
   Article V
   1. Where a financial guarantee for the customs transit operation is required, it shall be furnished to the satisfaction of the customs authorities of the transit country concerned in conformity with its national law and regulations and international conventions.
   2. With a view to facilitating customs transit, the system of customs guarantee shall be simple, efficient, moderately priced and shall cover import/export duties and taxes chargeable and, in countries where they are covered by guarantees, any penalties due.
   
   Article VI
   1. Without prejudice to any other documents which may be required by virtue of an international convention or national law and regulations, customs authorities of transit countries shall accept the multimodal transport document as a descriptive part of the customs transit document.
   2. With a view to facilitating customs transit, customs transit documents shall be aligned, as far as possible, with the layout reproduced below.
   
   



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